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Toivonen, Peter, Ph.D.

Research Scientist, Postharvest Physiology

Contact Information:

Highway 97
Box 5000
Summerland, British Columbia V0H 1Z0
Telephone: 250-494-6386
Fax: 250-494-0755
Email: peter.toivonen@agr.gc.ca

Areas of Expertise:

  • Quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables
  • Antioxidants and degradation processes in fruits and vegetables
  • Energy saving approaches for storage
  • Postharvest physiology of fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Effect of raw product quality on storage

Current Projects:

  • Postharvest characterization of quality in newly released apple and sweet cherry cultivars
  • Improving flavour of controlled atmosphere stored and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treated Ambrosia™ apples
  • Phenotyping of soft scald susceptibility and biochemical markers in seedling populations from specified breeding crosses of apples

Affiliations:

  • Member, USDA S294 Regional Project 'Quality and Safety of Fresh-cut Fruits and Vegetables'
  • Past Chair of USDA NE1036 Regional Project ‘Postharvest Physiology of Fruits’
  • AAFC Science Advisor to the board of the British Columbia Cherry Association
  • Vice-Chair of Commission Quality and Postharvest Horticulture for the International Society for Horticultural Science
  • Editorial Advisory Board Member for Postharvest Biology and Technology
  • Adjunct Professor, University of British Columbia, Faculty of Land and Food Systems
  • Canadian Representative on PROCINORTE Tree Fruit Task Force

Research publications

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

Other science related publications

2017

  • Toivonen, P.M.A. and Cliff, M.A. 2017. Progress Report for Project ID number J-000379. P020-BCFGA- Canadian Tree Fruit Products Development - Activity 4: Update on Improving Ambrosia™ Apple Quality after Long Term Storage February 2017. AAFC Agri-Innovations Project Annual Activity Report, 16 pp.

2016

  • Cliff, M.A., Stanich, K., and Toivonen, P.M.A. (2016 Confidential). Sensory profiling of Ambrosia apples from static low oxygen and dynamic controlled atmosphere storage followed by an air and/or air plus oxygen period – A confidential report. AAFC Agri-Innovation Program. 11 pp. August 9 2016. (Report)
  • O'Gorman, D.T., Haag, P., Urbez-Torres, J.R., Forge, T.A., Nelson, L.M., and Toivonen, P.M.A. (2016). Characterization and management of two cherry diseases in the Okanagan: cherry slip skin and cherry replant disease. AIP-ASP reporting: BC Cherry Growers Association/Summerland Varieties Corp - Interim Report, January 1,2016. (Report)
  • O`GORMAN D.T. , WALKER M., FRASERJ., BOULE J., ÚRBEZ-TORRES J.R. AND TOIVONEN P. M. 2016. Unravelling cherry slip-skin maceration disorder. BC-CPS meeting 2016 Summerland. Canadian J. of Plant Path. Vol. 38: 533-540
  • Stanich, K., Cliff, M.A., and Toivonen, P.M.A. (2016). Sensory profiling of Ambrosia apples produced using reflective row cover or foliar phosphorous spray at two orchards in the Similkameen Valley: A project report. AAFC Agri-Innovation Program. July 2016. (Report)

2015

  • Hampson, C.R., McKenzie, D.-L., Herbert, L.C., and Toivonen, P.M.A. (2015). "Resistance of new sweet cherry cultivars to fruit pitting.", HortScience, 50(9: S255). (Abstract)
  • Hampson, C.R., McKenzie, D.-L., Herbert, L.C., and Toivonen, P.M.A. (2015). "Resistance of new sweet cherry cultivars to fruit pitting.", American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) Annual Conference 2015, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, August 4-7, 2015. (Poster)
  • McClure, K.A., Gardner, K.M., Toivonen, P.M.A., Hampson, C.R., Lannard, B.L., Rajcan, I., Song, J., and Myles, S. (2015). "Genetic mapping using next-generation DNA sequencing in apple.", Canadian Plant Genome Workshop (CPGW 2015), Victoria, BC, Canada, August 1-13., 2015.
  • Song, J., Forney, C.F., Myles, S., Sauerteig, K.A., Du, L., Hampson, C.R., Toivonen, P.M.A., Fan, L., DeLong, J.M., and Fillmore, S.A.E. (2015). "An integrated “omics” investigation on control mechanisms and molecular markers of apple fruit storage disorders.", AG Connect 2015 Summit, Truro, NS, USA, March 31-April 1, 2015. (Poster)
  • Stanich, K., Cliff, M.A., and Toivonen, P.M.A. (2015 Confidential). Evaluation of the sensory characteristics of sweet cherries treated with Parka+™: A confidential report. AAFC Agri-Innovation Program. December 2015. (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., Cossentine, J.E., O'Gorman, D.T., and Urbez-Torres, J.R. (2015 Confidential). Progress Report for Project ID number J-000378. P020-BCFGA- Canadian Tree Fruit Products Development - Activity 3: Postharvest characterization of apple and sweet cherry quality. (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., DeLong, J.M., Hampson, C.R., Song, J., Forney, C.F., and Myles, S. (2015). "Peel maturity only correlates with soft scald in a highly susceptible orchard of Ambrosia™ apple.", HortScience, 50(9), pp. S181. (Abstract)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., DeLong, J.M., Song, J., and Forney, C.F. (2015). "Peel Maturity only Correlates with Soft Scald in a Highly Susceptible Orchard of Ambrosia™ apple.", American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) Annual Conference 2015, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, August 4-7, 2015.

2014

  • O'Gorman, D.T., Haag, P., Urbez-Torres, J.R., and Toivonen, P.M.A. (2014). Characterization and management of two cherry diseases in the Okanagan: cherry slip skin and cherry replant disease 2014. AIP-ASP reporting: Okanagan Plant Improvement Company (PICO)/Scientist Meeting Agenda – March 26, 2014: PARC-Summerland. (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2014). "DA meter assessment of apple maturity: Myths, realities and challenges.", Orchard Network Newsletter, 18(4), pp. 10-11. (Newsletter)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2014). "Managing sweet cherry quality - Importance of production and harvest practices.", Compact Fruit Tree(August), pp. 30.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2014). Response of Aurora Golden Gala™ apples to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, controlled atmosphere storage (CAS) and storage temperature over short duration storage. Report to Summerland Varieties Corporation, 13 pp. (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. and Cliff, M.A. (2014). Progress Report for Project ID number J-000379. P020-BCFGA- Canadian Tree Fruit Products Development - Activity 4: Update on Improving Ambrosia™ Apple Quality after Long Term Storage. AIP-ASP reporting: Okanagan Plant Improvement Company (PICO)/Scientist Meeting Agenda – March 26, 2014: PARC-Summerland. (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. and Hampson, C.R. (2014). "Replacement of existing cultivars with similar apples having better postharvest traits.", ISHS 29th International Horticultural Congress, Brisbane, Australia, August 17-22, 2014, Oral presentation.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., O'Gorman, D.T., and Cossentine, J.E. (2014). Progress Report for Project ID number J-000378. P020-BCFGA-Canadian Tree Fruit Products Development - Activity 3: Postharvest characterization of apple and sweet cherry quality. AIP-ASP reporting: Okanagan Plant Improvement Company (PICO)/Scientist Meeting Agenda – March 26, 2014: PARC-Summerland. (Report)

2013

  • Bach, S.J., Delaquis, P.J., Toivonen, P.M.A., and Lu, C. (2013). "Impact of hydrogen peroxide on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vitro and in vivo on fresh-cut lettuce.", United Fresh 2013, San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, CA, USA, May 14-16, 2013, Abstract. (Poster)
  • Bach, S.J., Delaquis, P.J., Toivonen, P.M.A., and Lu, C. (2013). "The effect of hypoxic treatment of Romaine lettuce on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7.", United Fresh 2013, San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, CA, USA, May 14-16, 2013, Abstract. (Poster)
  • Bach, S.J., Guévremont, É., Bezanson, G.S., Brassard, H., Delaquis, P.J., Ells, T.C., Hodges, D.M., Toivonen, P.M.A., and Kostrzynska, M. (2013). Enhancing mitigation strategies for microbiological risks in fresh horticultural products. Research Project FINAL Report AAFC RBPI #1489. (Report)
  • Bach, S.J., Lu, C., Delaquis, P.J., and Toivonen, P.M.A. (2013). "Impact of wound induced hydrogen peroxide production on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-cut lettuce.", 5th Congress of European Microbiologists (FEMS 2013), Leipzig, Germany, July 21-25, 2013, Presentation. (Poster)
  • Bach, S.J., Toivonen, P.M.A., Lu, C., and Delaquis, P.J. (2013). Multistate Research Project S-294. Postharvest Quality and Safety in Fresh-cut Vegetables and Fruits. 2012-2013 Activities Report. (Report)
  • Delaquis, P.J., Bach, S.J., Lu, C., and Toivonen, P.M.A. (2013). "Effect of environmental factors (field versus controlled environment chamber) on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine lettuce.", United Fresh 2013, San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, CA, USA, May 14-16, 2013, Abstract. (Poster)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2013). "Importance of Managing Humidity and Temperature from Harvest to Packinghouse.", 8 pages.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2013). "Importancia de manejar la humedad y la temperatura desde la cosecha hasta el almacén.", 8 pages.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. and Hampson, C.R. (2013). "Respiration rates of sweet cherry cultivars at optimal and abusive temperatures over three growing seasons.", VIIth International Cherry Symposium, Plasencia, Spain, June 23-27, 2013, Poster.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., Lu, C., Bach, S.J., and Delaquis, P.J. (2013). "Hypoxic atmospheres can induce subsequent increases in cutting‐induced hydrogen peroxide production by fresh‐cut Romaine lettuce.", 11th International Controlled and Modified Atmosphere Research Conference, Trani, Italy, June 3-7, 2013. (Poster)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., Lu, C., Bach, S.J., and Delaquis, P.J. (2013). "Hypoxic treatment can enhance cut-edge hydrogen peroxide production in Romaine lettuce.", United Fresh 2013, San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, CA, USA, May 14-16, 2013, Abstract. (Poster)

2012

  • Neilsen, G.H., Neilsen, D., Toivonen, P.M.A., and Kappel, F. (2012 Internal). Final report to IFTA. Harvest and storage quality of sweet cherry/ Gisela 6 managed with ultra high frequency irrigation and high P nutrition, 4pp. (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2012 Internal). OKCGA Project 11 –C, Temperature and shock treatment of CO2 on post-harvest cherries . Progress Report to the OKCGA. 13 pp. (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2012 Internal). Progress Report on Postharvest Storage and Quality Characteristics of ‘Silken’ Apple from the 2011 Season. Progress report to the PICO-DIAP board. 9 pp. (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2012). Controlled Atmosphere Storage Experiments for ‘Ambrosia’ Apples 2011-12., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)/Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada (AAC). (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2012). Progress Report on Postharvest Storage and Quality Characteristics of ‘Silken’ Apple from the 2011 Season., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)/Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada (AAC). (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2012). Storage research 2011-12 season. Nicola™ News, February 2012, p. 2.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., Mostofi, Y., Hampson, C.R., and Wiersma, P.A. (2012). "Evaluating the synchronicity of flesh and peel ripening in standard and new cultivars of apples.", Annual Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Miami, Florida, USA, July 31-August 3, 2012. (Poster)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., Mostofi, Y., Hampson, C.R., and Wiersma, P.A. (2012). "Exciting New Technologies for Today.", Okanagan Fieldmens Association Horticultural Forum, Kelowna, BC, Canada, March 1, 2012.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., Mostofi, Y., Hampson, C.R., and Wiersma, P.A. (2012). "Storage Research With New Cultivars.", 10th Ontario Fruit and Vegetable Convention (OFVC 2012), Niagara Falls, ON, Canada, February 22-23, 2012.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., Mostofi, Y., Wiersma, P.A., and Hampson, C.R. (2012). Evaluation of Non-Destructive Instruments for Assessing Apple Maturity and Quality: 2011 Results., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)/Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada (AAC). (Report)

2011

  • Bach, S.J., Lu, C., Delaquis, P.J., and Toivonen, P.M.A. (2011). "Cutting Romaine lettuce while submerged in sanitizer improves efficacy of sodium hypochlorite.", The Grower, 61(5), pp. 20.
  • Neilsen, D., Neilsen, G.H., Toivonen, P.M.A., and Kappel, F. (2011 Internal). Harvest and storage quality of sweet cherry/Gisela 6 managed with ultra high frequency irrigation and high P nutrition. Annual report to International Fruit Tree Association (IFTA), 5pp. (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2011 Internal). Activity 2, OKCGA co-funded research for P. Toivonen, PICO-DIAP March 2011 Report, 9 pp. (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2011 Internal). Réactions à l’entreposage et qualité post-récolte des pommes : Cultivons l’avenir d’AAC / PICO-DPAI Analyse des résultats de la première année (2010-2011), 13pp. (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2011). "DIAP Project 2010 – OKCGA Activities", BC Tree Fruit Horticultural Symposium 2011, Kelowna, BC, Canada, March 10-11, 2011.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. and Hampson, C.R. (2011). "Phenotypic analysis of new sweet cherry and apple cultivars based on postharvest characteristics.", 4th International Conference Postharvest Unlimited 2011, Wenatchee, WA, USA, May 23-26, 2011, pp. 69.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., Lu, C., Delaquis, P.J., and Bach, S.J. (2011). "Timing of sanitizer application reduces microbial counts on fresh-cut Romaine lettuce.", 2nd ISHS International Conference on Quality Management of Fresh Cut Produce: Convenience Food for a Tasteful Life, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy, July 17-21, 2011.

2010

  • Forney, C.F., Cliff, M.A., Liu, P.Y., and Toivonen, P.M.A. (2010). "Influence of packaging on the flavor of fresh-cut apple slices.", United Fresh 2010, Sands MegaCenter, Las Vegas, NV, USA, April 20-23, 2010. (Poster)
  • Forney, C.F., Song, J., Toivonen, P.M.A., Cliff, M.A., Lu, C., and Jordan, M.A. (2010). "Factors affecting the flavor of fresh-cut apples.", 107th Annual Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) for Speciality Crops, Palm Desert, CA, USA, August 2-5, 2010, Published in: HortScience, 45(8), pp. S57. (Abstract)
  • Lu, C., Toivonen, P.M.A., and Hodges, D.M. (2010). "Changes in antioxidant capacity of in vitro digests and methanolic extracts of postharvest spinach.", 2010 Canadian Institute of Food Science & Technology (CIFST) and AAFC Conference, Fairmont Winnipeg Hotel, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, May 30-June 1, 2010, # 03-3. (Abstract)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2010). "Postharvest Physiology of Vegetables.", in Sinha, N.K., Hui, Y.H., Özgül Evranuz, E., Siddiq, M. and Ahmed, J. (eds.) - Handbook of Vegetables and Vegetable Processing, Wiley - Blackwell, Chapter 9.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. (2010). "Wound Response Physiology in Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables: Implications on Quality, Microbiology and Nutrition.", Gordon Research Conference on Postharvest Physiology, Tilton, NH, USA, June 27-July 2, 2010.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. and Hampson, C.R. (2010). "Comparison of antioxidant content in apple cultivars using methanol extracts and simulated gastro-intestinal digest extracts.", Annual Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Palm Desert, California, USA, August 2-5, 2010. (Poster)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. and Kappel, F. (2010). "Effect of Cold Storage Duration on Shelf Quality Attributes of ‘Bing’ and Five Sweet Cherry Cultivars Developed in the Summerland Breeding Program.", XXVIII International Horticultural Congress - IHC2010, Lisboa Congress Centre, Lisbon, Portugal, August 22-27, 2010, Session 8 - Postharvest Treatments, S02.077. (Presentation)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., Lu, C., Delaquis, P.J., and Bach, S.J. (2010). "Evaluation of timing for application of sanitizing washes to reduce microbial counts on Romaine lettuce.", 14th Annual Federal Food Safety and Nutrition Research Meeting (FFSNRM), Ottawa, ON, Canada, November 3-4, 2010, pp. 28.

2009

  • Bai, X., Prange, R.K., and Toivonen, P.M.A. (2009). "Pome Fruits.", in Yahia, E.M. (ed.) - Modified and Controlled Atmospheres for the Storage, Transportation, and Packaging of Horticultural Commodities, CRC Press Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, USA, Chapter 12.
  • Neilsen, G.H., Neilsen, D., Hogue, E.J., Toivonen, P.M.A., and Kappel, F. (2009 Internal). Understanding variation in cherry response to management treatments. Final report., Okanagan Kootenay Cherry Growers' Association (OKCGA), BC, Canada. (Report)
  • Neilsen, G.H., Neilsen, D., Toivonen, P.M.A., Herbert, L.C., Lannard, B.L., and Chung, L. (2009). Effect of Avail liquid fertilizer on apple tree P uptake and fruit quality., J.R. Simplot Company and Murphy Agro. (Report)
  • Neilsen, G.H., Neilsen, D., Toivonen, P.M.A., and Kappel, F. (2009 Internal). Harvest and storage quality of sweet cherry/Gisela 6 managed with ultra high frequency irrigation and high P nutrition. 4pp., International Fruit Tree Association (IFTA), Chesterfield, MO, USA. (Report)
  • Toivonen, P.M.A. and Hodges, D.M. (2009). "Leafy Vegetables and Salads.", in Terry, L.A. (ed.) - Health-promoting properties of fruits and vegetables, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, Chapter 10.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., Delaquis, P.J., and Orban, S. (2009). "Can variability in growth of human pathogens in fresh-cut romaine lettuce be associated with differences in wound-associated metabolism?", 13th Annual Federal Food Safety and Nutrition Research Meeting (FFSNRM), Ottawa, ON, Canada, November 4-5, 2009, pp. 56-57.
  • Toivonen, P.M.A., Hampson, C.R., Wiersma, P.A., Lannard, B.L., and Lu, C. (2009). "Quality of Fresh-Cut Apple Slices is Modulated by Short Term Post-Controlled Atmosphere Air Storage of Whole Fruit.", 2009 Postharvest Pacifica - Pathway to Quality, Napier War Memorial Conference Centre, Napier, New Zealand, November 15-19, 2009.
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