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Consumer Profile – Germany

November 2019

Executive summary

In 2018, Germany's total population was 83.0 million people. According to GlobalData, there were 64.2 million people with 77.3% of the population living in urban areas in 2018 and is expected to marginally increase to 77.8% of the population at 64.8 million people by 2023.

The fertility rate in Germany was 1.5 per female, equivalent to 8.3 children born per thousand people in 2018. Germany's fertility rates are forecasted to remain relatively unchanged through to 2023 and life expectancy at birth is expected to increase from 80.9 years in 2018 to 81.4 years by 2023.

In 2018, the GDP per capita in Germany was US$48,110 and is forecast to increase by 4.3% to US$56,418 by 2023. Germany's unemployment rate decreased by 8.7% registering 3.4% in 2018, in comparison to 4.9% registered in 2014. The unemployment rate is expected to decrease further to 3.0% by 2023.

The German food and beverage market is highly receptive to new cultural influences and culinary trends as both national and international companies operate in almost every sub segment of the market.

The food and beverage industry is the fourth largest industry sector in Germany generating US$197.1 billion in production value in 2017. The largest sector segments by production value are meat and sausage products (24%), dairy products (15%), baked goods (10%) and confectionery (8%).

The German consumer sees a direct link between nutrition, physical fitness and health. An increasing number of consumers regard food as an opportunity to overcome general health concerns such as obesity, diabetes and celiac disease, as well as improve their sense of well-being and even their performance levels.

Key demographic indicators

In 2018, Germany's total population was 83.0 million people. According to GlobalData, there were 64.2million people with 77.3% of the population living in urban areas in 2018 and is expected to marginally increase to 77.8% of the population at 64.8 million people by 2023. Conversely, in 2018, there were 18.8 million people or 22.7% of the population living in rural areas and is expected to decrease to 18.5 million people or 22.2% of the rural population by 2023.

Germany's urban versus rural population ('000), historic/forecast
2014 2018 CAGR* % 2014-2018 2019 2023 CAGR* % 2019-2023
Total population 81,198.0 83,035.5 0.6 83,232.5 83,392.3 0.0
Urban population 62,676.7 64,196.4 0.4 64,401.9 64,849.9 0.2
Rural population 18,521.3 18,839.1 0.4 18,830.5 18,542.3 −0.4
Urban population % 77.2 77.3 0.0 77.4 77.8 0.1
Rural population % 22.8 22.7 −0.1 22.6 22.2 −0.4

Source: GlobalData: macroeconomic data, 2019

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

Berlin, Hamburg, Munich and Koln were the only four cities in 2018 to have over 1 million inhabitants. Berlin (3,552.0) had over 6 times the population of Dresden (541.2) in 2018 and is expected to remain the largest populated city with 3,587.2 inhabitants forecasted in 2023, followed again by Hamburg, Munich and Koln with 1,813.5, 1,500.6 and 1,069.8 inhabitants respectively. All of the major German cities have grown from 2014 to 2018 and are expected to continue to grow within the forecasted period with the exception of Dortmund and Dresden, whose populations are expected to decline slightly by −0.1% respectively.

Population in major German cities ('000), historic/forecast
City 2014 2018 CAGR* % 2014-2018 2019 2023 CAGR* % 2019-2023
Berlin 3,469.8 3,552.0 0.6 3,560.6 3,587.2 0.2
Hamburg 1,762.8 1,799.8 0.5 1,803.1 1,813.5 0.1
Munich 1,429.6 1,474.3 0.8 1,480.7 1,500.6 0.3
Koln 1,046.7 1,065.0 0.4 1,066.2 1,069.8 0.1
Frankfurt 717.6 740.7 0.8 742.9 749.5 0.2
Dusseldorf 604.5 611.8 0.3 611.7 611.4 0.0
Essen 573.8 583.4 0.4 583.7 584.3 0.0
Dortmund 580.5 582.9 0.1 582.0 579.3 −0.1
Leipzig 544.5 574.6 1.4 578.3 590.1 0.5
Dresden 536.3 541.2 0.2 540.5 538.3 −0.1

Source: GlobalData: city economics, 2019

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

The median age in Germany was 47.7 years in 2018 and is expected to increase to 48.0 by 2023. The median age in Europe is younger in comparison to Germany, as the European median age was 41.3 in 2018 and is expected to increase to 42.6 by 2023. From 2014 to 2023, the amount of people in the 0-14 and 65+ age brackets have/will increase, while the population in the 15-64 age bracket increased in the historic period (2014-2018), yet is expected to decrease by 0.6% in the forecast period (2019-2023).

Germany's population by age group ('000), historic/forecast
Category 2014 2018 CAGR* % 2014-2018 2019 2023 CAGR* % 2019-2023
Population aged 0-14 10,519.9 10,654.7 0.3 10,697.1 10,861.6 0.4
Population aged 15-64 53,507.7 53,812.5 0.1 53,669.3 52,448.2 −0.6
Population aged 65+ 17,170.4 18,568.3 2.0 18,866.2 20,082.5 1.6
Median age of population 46.1 47.7 0.9 47.6 48.0 0.2

Source: GlobalData: macroeconomic data, 2019

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

Germany's vital statistics

The fertility rate in Germany was 1.5 per female equivalent to 8.3 children born per thousand people (at mid-year) in 2018. The German fertility rates were lower than the regional averages within Europe, which had a fertility rate of 1.6 per female in 2018. Meanwhile, as recorded in 2018, European regional averages were 10.7 births per thousand people which was higher than Germany's 8.3 birth rates per thousand. Germany's fertility rates are forecasted to remain relatively unchanged through to 2023 and life expectancy at birth is expected to increase from 80.9 years in 2018 to 81.4 years by 2023. The death rate in Germany is also expected to increase slightly from 11.8 to 12.5 deaths per thousand people between 2018 to 2023. The regional forecasted death rates within Europe are expected to increase to 10.4 deaths per thousand people by 2023 from 10.1 deaths per thousand people registered in 2018.

Germany's net migration rate attained the largest CAGR of 8.7% from 2014 to 2018, increasing from 85.9 to 119.9 per thousand people.

Germany's demographic trends ('000), historic/forecast
Category 2014 2018 CAGR* % 2014-2018 2019 2023 CAGR* % 2019-2023
Birth rates per '000 8.4 8.3 −0.3 8.3 8.2 −0.3
Fertility rates per female 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.5 0.0
Live births ('000) 681.9 691.9 0.4 692.3 682.5 −0.4
Infant mortality rate per'000 3.5 3.4 −0.7 3.3 3.3 0.0
Life expectancy at birth 80.4 80.9 0.2 81.0 81.4 0.1
Death rates per '000 11.3 11.8 1.1 12.0 12.5 1.0
Net migration rate per '000 85.9 119.9 8.7 119.7 120.2 0.1

Source: GlobalData: macroeconomic data, 2019

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

Household structure, educational attainment and income levels

The number of households without children is the largest household structure in Germany with 33.3 million people, registering a CAGR of 0.9% in 2018. Similarly, the number of households without children remains the largest trend in the forecasted period attaining 34.2 million households by 2023. The number of households with children remains the smallest type of household within Germany attaining 8.2 million households in 2018, expected to grow by 0.1% by 2023, to attain 8.3 million households.

Number of households by type in Germany ('000), historic/forecast
Type 2014 2018 CAGR* % 2014-2018 2019 2023 CAGR* % 2019-2023
Number of households with children 8,061.0 8,244.9 0.6 8,273.9 8,291.1 0.1
Number of households without children 32,162.0 33,336.1 0.9 33,617.6 34,177.3 0.4
Number of households with one person 16,290.3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Number of households with two people 13,917.2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Number of households with three or more people 10,095.9 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Source: GlobalData: macroeconomic data, 2019

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

N/A: Not Available

In 2014, the median income of the population in Germany was US$29,677. In 2018, 12.8 million students throughout Germany over the age of fifteen were in primary, secondary and/or tertiary education. Those students (aged 15+) in secondary education represent the largest type of educational attainment in Germany with 6.9 million students or 54.1% of the population. The amount of students in secondary education will, however, decrease by 1.2% to 6.5 million (51.4%) secondary students by 2023. Of note, those students in tertiary education have increased in both the historic and forecast period from 3.1 million students in 2018, to 3.5 million students by 2023.

Educational attainment levels in Germany('000), historic/forecast
Type of statistic 2014 2018 CAGR* % 2014-2018 2019 2023 CAGR* % 2019-2023
Population aged 15+ by educational attainment 13,088.2 12,848.8 −0.5 12,792.8 12,764.1 −0.1
Number of students in primary education 2,862.7 2,764.5 −0.9 2,749.3 2,710.0 −0.4
Number of students in secondary education 7,222.0 6,948.5 −1.0 6,873.7 6,555.0 −1.2
Number of students in tertiary education 3,003.5 3,135.8 1.1 3,169.8 3,499.1 2.5
Percent of population in primary education 21.9 21.5 −0.5 21.5 21.2 −0.4
Percent of population in secondary education 55.2 54.1 −0.5 53.7 51.4 −1.1
Percent of population in tertiary education 22.9 24.4 1.6 24.8 27.4 2.5

Source: GlobalData: macroeconomic data, 2019

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

N/A: Not Available

Business environment and economic indicators

In 2018, the GDP per capita in Germany was US$48,110 and is forecast to increase by 4.3% to US$56,418 by 2023. Germany's unemployment growth rate declined by 8.7% to 3.4% in 2018, from an unemployment rate of 4.9% registered in 2014. The unemployment rate is expected to decrease further to 3.0% by 2023.

Germany's economic figures in US$, historic/forecast
Type 2014 2018 CAGR* % 2014-2018 2019 2023 CAGR* % 2019-2023
GDP in millions 3,898,725.1 3,994,893.1 0.6 3,963,852.8. 4,704,889.3 4.4
GDP per capita 48,015.0 48,110.7 0.0 47,623.9 56,418.8 4.3
Unemployment rate 4.9 3.4 −8.7 3.4 3.0 −3.1

Source: GlobalData Intelligence, 2019

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

Food and beverage expenditures and preferences

According to GlobalData, in 2018, the total consumer annual expenditure per capita on food and beverages was US$2,684.9 (representing a decrease in CAGR of 0.9% between 2014 to 2018). There was 66.5% spent on food and 33.3% was spent on both non-alcoholic and alcoholic drinks. During the forecast period, total consumer annual expenditure per capita on food and beverages is expected to increase by a CAGR of 1.5% with increases from US$2,727.5 in 2019 to US$2,898.9 in 2023.

Important industry distribution channels include food service sales (US$86.1 billion) and exports of processed foods (US$66.0 billion) in 2017.Footnote 1 According to Germany Trade & Invest (GTAI), 83 million consumers help make Germany the largest retail market for food and beverages in Europe with retail sales valued at US$266.7 billion in 2017.Footnote 1

The German food and beverage market is highly receptive to new cultural influences and culinary trends, as both national and international companies operate in almost every sub segment of the market. The industry is driven to not only deliver the very best to its consumers, but also respond to the evolving consumer's increasing health awareness, an aging population and the resulting demand for health and wellness products. Subsequently, consumers are showing a growing demand for value and quality enriched products including organic, fair trade and health and wellness foods.

The food and beverage industry is the fourth largest industry sector in Germany generating US$197.1 billion in production value in 2017. The largest sector segments by production value are meat and sausage products (24%), dairy products (15%), baked goods (10%) and confectionery (8%).Footnote 2 The major sectors in terms of volume within meat and sausage products include pork (61%), chicken (17%) and beef (13%) with a total meat consumption of 60 kg per capita in 2017; including over 36 kg of pork and more than 12 kg of chicken products.

Germany is Europe's largest dairy producer with milk production volumes registering 31.3 million tons in 2017. Producers focus on products with natural ingredients such as calcium and reduced-fat yogurt and dessert formulas. Annual household bread and bakery consumption was 58.9 kg in 2017 with the sector comprised of both small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) and multinational companies. Industrial bakery production exceeds artisanal production, while in-store bakeries and discount bakery chains are expected to continue to grow. Within the confectionery segment, the average annual consumption per capita exceeded 30 kg in 2017. Emerging growth segments include fine pastries and savoury snacks, in addition to products with fat-free, low-sugar and sugar-free confectionery.Footnote 3

Annual per capita expenditure on food and beverages in Germany, historic and forecast fixed current prices in US$, 2014-2023
Category 2014 2018[e] CAGR* % 2014-2018 2019 2023 CAGR* % 2019-2023
Food 1,826.9 1,787.7 −0.5 1,813.7 1,925.4 −1.5
Bakery and cereals 161.9 152.2 −1.5 156.0 174.2 2.8
Confectionery 145.6 141.3 −0.7 145.5 163.6 3.0
Dairy and soy food 377.9 346.6 −2.1 354.7 391.4 2.5
Fish and seafood 58.1 53.9 −1.9 55.2 59.9 2.1
Ice cream 34.8 33.8 −0.7 35.1 40.6 3.7
Meat 672.3 703.9 1.2 701.6 685.9 −0.6
Meat substitutes 2.2 2.9 7.2 3.1 4.5 9.8
Oils and fats 51.2 49.2 −1.0 50.9 59.3 3.9
Other canned food 18.1 16.7 −2.0 17.0 18.5 2.1
Other dried food 7.1 6.4 −2.6 6.5 7.1 2.2
Other frozen food 18.3 17.3 −1.4 17.7 19.9 3.0
Pasta and noodles 18.8 17.5 −1.8 17.9 20.0 2.8
Prepared meals 62.1 56.8 −2.2 57.8 61.8 1.7
Savory and deli foods 66.2 63.4 −1.1 65.3 73.1 2.9
Savory snacks 32.6 32.5 −0.1 33.8 39.2 3.8
Seasonings, dressings and sauces 61.8 56.7 −2.1 57.9 63.8 2.5
Soups 7.6 6.8 −2.7 6.9 7.6 2.4
Syrups and spreads 30.3 29.8 −0.4 30.8 35.0 3.2
Non-alcoholic beverages 282.6 280.5 −0.2 291.0 327.7 3.0
Hot drinks 128.8 117.9 −2.2 120.4 131.6 2.2
Soft drinks 153.8 162.6 1.4 170.6 196.1 3.5
Alcoholic drinks 678.9 616.7 −2.4 622.8 645.8 0.9
Beer and cider 138.2 128.0 −1.9 128.4 130.4 0.4
Spirits 284.1 247.6 −3.4 248.5 247.6 −0.1
Wine 256.6 241.1 −1.5 245.9 267.8 2.2
Total consumer expenditure on foods and beverages 2,788.4 2,684.9 −0.9 2,727.5 2,898.9 1.5

Source: GlobalData: Market data, 2019

e: estimate

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

Consumer trends and opportunities

Food and beverages

The German food retail landscape is both consolidated and mature. The top four German retailers Edeka, Schwartz Group, Rewe Group and Aldi Group, retain a 60% market share and successfully operate under more than one distribution channel (supermarkets and discounters). In 2017, discounters represented a 43% market share encouraging supermarkets to retain their share by continuously enlarging their product portfolio by including the introduction of premium private labels, value-added services and innovative shop layouts.Footnote 4 Comparatively, on-line grocery shopping is increasing its relatively small presence as shopper's interest in buying on-line grows. As such, food retailers and specialty grocers are launching and expanding on-line offerings to include popular categories such as confectionery and snacks, canned food, pasta, rice and beverages.

The largest and most free-spending consumer group is the 50+ known as the 'best agers' segment, as only 10% of available disposable income is currently being saved.Footnote 5

The Nestlé study "So is(s) t Deutschland 2019" (1,636 Germans aged 14 to 84 surveyed) reports that people's eating habits and nutrition have evolved over the past ten years. In 2009, 47% of Germans stated that lunch was the most important and main meal of the day versus 39% who view so today. Other findings from the study find that only 5% would accept insects as a meat substitute and 9% would like food that is individually adapted to their own genome while 15% are enthusiastic about foods that increase mental performance.Footnote 6

The creation and increase in the 'fourth meal' culture among millennials, as noted by Innova Market Insights, has been driven by increasingly busier lifestyles that has resulted in the increased demand for quick, convenient and healthy solutions. Opportunities for wholesome, satisfying and sustaining snacks to fulfill the role of mini meals that contribute to the refueling of nutritional needs have grown through recent food and beverage launches with a snacking claim, led recently, by vegetable-based snacks.Footnote 7

An ever growing share of German consumers enjoys eating out of the home in restaurants, cafes and snack bars. In 2017, food service sales grew by 3.4% and reached US$86.3 billion including quick service (5.6% increase) and full service outlets (8.6%), which profited from the positive market environment. Casual food service concepts such as 'Mediterranean' and 'Asian' style restaurants as well as 'better burger' concepts also enjoy growing popularity.Footnote 2

Regionality remains important to the German consumer. Regionally sourced/produced foods and anticipated growing international demand for food made in Germany are expected to drive market growth. According to Cologne-based market researchers YouGov, two in five consumers pay attention to origin when shopping for groceries, ahead of freshness (52%) and sugar content (47%). 'Regional production' has a positive connotation as 74% of German consumers have a positive opinion about a product if the packaging indicates it has been produced regionally. Further, 77% state that products showing 'regional' on the packaging are perceived as fresher, while 49% view regional products as being of higher quality in comparison to 43% who consider organic products to be of higher quality.Footnote 8 Consumers continue to display a growing demand and interest for value and quality enriched products including organic, fair trade and health and wellness trends as consumers recognize the positive effects of balanced nutrition in relation to their overall health and wellbeing.

Germany is the fourth largest market in Europe for non-alcoholic drinks and alcoholic beverages. Of note, according to the online portal Statista, German beer consumption per capita has declined from 140 litres per year in 1970 to under 100 liters in 2018, yet consumer's overall preference for beer remains evident in the current growth of craft beer and its variations in pale ale, wheat or lager and alcohol-free beers. Changes in consumer preferences have also led to a higher consumption of organic wines, beers and spirits in addition to 'light' (reduced alcohol content) beverages. Coffee however, remains the country's most popular drink with an annual per capita consumption of 162 litres in 2017.Footnote 9

The outlook and development for the food and beverage market remains positive as the domestic food and beverage sector has profited from a strong German economy, low interest rates, a growing population with an increasing purchasing power, low unemployment rate, an increasingly fast-paced and mobile society with sophisticated and increasing demands for greater variety and quality of food products; in addition to the reported and rising number of single households.

Health and wellness

The German consumer sees a direct link between nutrition, physical fitness and health. An increasing number of consumers regard food as an opportunity to overcome general health concerns such as obesity, diabetes and celiac disease, as well as, improve their sense of well-being and even their performance levels. For those Germans aged 60 and older, 41% believe nutrition is key while this number increases to 54% amongst those aged 70 years and older.Footnote 10 Consumers are increasingly sensitive to conscious shopping, as well as, healthy and sustainable nutrition. Popular products include those offered by functional foods that offer nutritious components like probiotics, fiber and vitamins. All German supermarkets and discounters sell organic foods, both branded and own organic label branded products.

Germany has recently embarked on an initiative launched by the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL) to improve nutrient intake and reduce the consumption of excessive quantities of sugar, salts and fats in developed food products. The initiative was prompted to tackle health-related diseases associated with a poor diet as BMEL noted that 47% of women and 62% of men are overweight in comparison to 15% of children and adolescents, while almost one fifth of adults are obese. Implementation of the program commenced early 2019 with reduction targets introduced and to be reviewed throughout the course of the project culminating to an interim report to be presented year end 2020. Companies like Nestlé, reduced the sugar content in Nesquik Alphabet by 30% and is committed to reducing its sugar content worldwide by an average of another 5% and reduce its sodium content an additional 10% by the end of 2020.Footnote 11 Similarly Berlin-based manufacturer Eat Performance, has launched Paleo chocolate muesli, a 100% organic and free from added sugar, gluten, lactose, artificial additives, preservatives and colourings in response to growing consumer interest for healthier breakfastsFootnote 12

In 2018, the vegetarian segment recorded significant growth in the food retail trade as sales surpassed the €1 billion (US$1.1 billion) mark for the first time in the past twelve months. Almost every product segment and assortment contributed to this growth while cheese alternatives products and their extended range, recorded above-proportional growth rates. Distribution channels are predominately through discounters, drugstores, supermarkets and hypermarkets.Footnote 13

According to the article 'Europe: Germans embrace 'flexitarianism', developed by Food News International, and cited in Mintel 2018, Germany attained the highest percentage of global vegan food and drink launches, accounting for 15% of the global vegan introductions between July 2017 and June 2018. In Germany, 14% of all food and drink launches between July 2017 and June 2018 carried vegan claims, while only 8% featured vegetarian claims. According to Katya Witham, global food and drink analyst, Mintel, global consumers have increased their intake of plant-based foods and Germany is not an exception. The majority of consumers are not giving up meat rather, they are making room for more vegan products as part of 'flexitarian' dieting.Footnote 14

H&W products overall had steady growth with a CAGR of 3.2% from 2013 to 2017, as retail value sales increased from US$40.0 billion in 2013 to US$45.4 billion in 2017. The forecasted period of 2018-2022, is expected to increase slightly by a growth rate of 2.5% as retail value sales decrease from US$45.9 billion in 2018 to US$50.9 billion by 2022. In 2018, those products with health & wellness attributes represented 24.7% of the German health and wellness market.

Germany's health and wellness market - historical and forecast retail value - US$ millions
Product attribute 2013 2017 CAGR* % 2013-2017 2018 2022 CAGR* % 2018-20 22
Health and wellness total 40,040.5 45,429.4 3.2 45,988.9 50,856.9 2.5
Food 20,034.2 21,431.4 1.7 21,984.3 24,379.2 2.6
Naturally healthy (NH) 7,737.2 8,148.5 1.3 8,329.5 9,081.4 2.2
Food minus 3,308.5 3,450.0 1.1 3,511.8 3,861.6 2.4
Free from (FF) 3,109.8 3,364.9 2.0 3,460.9 3,912.8 3.1
Food intolerance (FI) 2,400.0 2,657.8 2.6 2,749.7 3,113.2 3.2
Functional & fortified 1,797.6 2,086.1 3.8 2,180.4 2,540.8 3.9
Organic 1,681.1 1,724.1 0.6 1,752.0 1,869.4 1.6
Non-alcoholic beverage 20,006.3 23,997.9 4.7 24,004.6 26,477.8 2.5
Naturally healthy (NH) 13,157.4 15,313.8 3.9 15,149.6 16,917.1 2.8
Functional and fortified 3,274.4 4,188.8 6.4 4,383.5 4,801.1 2.3
Food minus 2,745.4 3,129.3 3.3 3,038.9 2,908.7 −1.1
Free from (FF) 750.8 1,210.8 12.7 1,279.8 1,692.8 7.2
Organic 78.3 155.2 18.7 152.8 158.1 0.9

Source: GlobalData, health and wellness, 2019

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

Not Available: Not Available

Opportunities

Germany has a large food and beverage sector, in addition to being the third largest exporter and importer (net importer) globally of agricultural and food products (according to Global Trade Tracker as reported from January 2016 to December 2018), making it the most important European market for foreign producers. Competition in food retail trade is strong, as both local and regional manufacturers and international brands, can distribute their products via Germany's discount sector at retail prices comparative to those of the European Union.

German consumers are interested in food and beverage products that offer both high-value and diversification in regards to high quality enriched products that contribute to the positive effects of a balanced nutrition in relation to their overall health and wellbeing. As such, Canada has the opportunity to increase its presence within the German food and beverage market by continuing its reputation for, and the provision of, quality agricultural food and beverage products to the German market.

Free trade agreements with the European Union like the Canadian-European Union Comprehensive and Economic Trade Agreement (CETA) help to encourage the Canadian export market by providing free trade access to the EU, as a result of these agreements.

For more information

International Trade Commissioners can provide Canadian industry with on-the-ground expertise regarding market potential, current conditions and local business contacts, and are an excellent point of contact for export advice.

For additional intelligence on this and other markets, the complete library of Global Analysis reports can be found on the International agri-food market intelligence page, arranged by region.

For additional information on ANUGA 2019, please contact:

Ben Berry, Deputy Director
Trade Show Strategy and Delivery
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
ben.berry@canada.ca

Resources

Consumer Profile – Germany
Global Analysis Report

Prepared by: Laurie Bernardi, International Market Research Analyst

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