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Animal feed and feed ingredients in the ASEAN region: Opportunities for Canadian companies in the Philippines, Singapore and Vietnam

This report considers the market opportunities for Canadian animal feed and feed ingredient exports in three countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region: the Philippines, Singapore, and Vietnam. The other members of this region are: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand.

This information is useful for Canadian exporters in this sector that are interested in the ASEAN market and taking advantage of enhanced trading opportunities with certain ASEAN members, such as those created by the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP).

Note: Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report has been compiled using UN Comtrade data and refers to animal feed and feed ingredients as defined by the following Harmonized System Codes (HS):

Animal feed:

Feed ingredients:

This report was commissioned and overseen by the High Commission of Canada to Singapore, and was prepared by a consultant. Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information is accurate, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) assumes no liability for any actions taken based on the information contained herein.

Summary

ASEAN's feed mills rely heavily on imported feed ingredients, including feed grains and pulses, protein meals, feed supplements and additives, meat and bone meals, and Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS). Canada is a major exporter of these agricultural products and for ASEAN markets there is an opportunity for Canada to grow its market share.

The following sections summarize the market potential for Canadian animal feed and feed ingredient exports presenting key metrics and an overview of opportunities and challenges.

Animal feed in the Philippines, Singapore and Vietnam
Market Total animal feed imports in 2017 Main suppliers in 2017 and their market share in percent of total tonnes imported Change in Canada's market share from 2013-2017 (percentage point change)
Philippines Can$298.1 million
185,700 tonnes
USA: 24.0%
Vietnam: 14.1%
Holland: 13.4%
Canada: 3.4% 
+1.1%
Singapore Can$67.4 million
24,600 tonnes
USA: 33.8%
Germany: 18.2%
France: 16.5%
Canada: 0.04%
-3.5%
Vietnam Can$620.2 million
335,000 tonnes
China: 23.1%
Thailand: 12.5%
USA: 12.2%
Canada: 1.7% 
+1.1%
Source: UN Comtrade import data, Intercedent Asia
Feed ingredients in the Philippines, Singapore and Vietnam
Market Total animal feed imports in 2017 Main suppliers in 2017 and their market share in percent of total tonnes imported Change in Canada's market share from 2013-2017 (percentage point change)
Philippines Can$1,609 million
3,314,400 tonnes
USA: 58.2%
Argentina: 22.8%
Thailand: 9.4%
Canada: 0.8% 
+0.7%
Singapore Can$33.4 million
96,600 tonnes
Malaysia: 65.3%
India: 9.7%
USA: 7.4%
Canada: 0.04%
-0.25%
Vietnam Can$5,181 million
14,259,200 tonnes
Argentina: 54.3%
Brazil: 19.5%
Russia: 5.5%
Canada: 2.0% 
+1.9%
Source: UN Comtrade import data, Intercedent Asia

The Philippines market potential summary

The Philippines is a major importer of animal feed and feed ingredients, registering strong growth in import demand and stronger growth in imports from Canada over the past five years (2014-18). The value of Philippine imports of animal feed and feed ingredients was Can$2.3 billion in 2018.

Overview of key metrics – Animal feed and feed ingredients
Metric Philippines
Total imports (2018) 4,195,343 tonnes
Growth in import market size by volume (Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) 2014-2018) +13.3%
Total import demand (2018) Can$2,335.9 million
Growth in volume of imports from Canada (CAGR 2014-2018) +46.6%
Canada's market share 0.75%

Opportunities:

Challenges:

Singapore market potential summary

The import market for animal feed and feed ingredients is minuscule and also slow growing overall. The value of imports all types of feed and feed ingredients from Canada was only around Can$200,000 in 2017 and, as shown in the table below, have been declining.

Overview of key metrics – Animal feed and feed ingredients
Metric Singapore
Total imports (2017) 121,180 tonnes
Growth in import market size by volume (Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) 2013-2017) +1.1%
Total import demand (2017) Can$100.9 million
Growth in volume of imports from Canada (CAGR 2014-2018) -59.8%
Canada's market share Negligible

Opportunities:

Challenges:

Vietnam market potential summary

In Vietnam, demand is strong for Canadian exports of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) HS 2303. This product alone accounts for 86% of Vietnam’s animal feed and feed ingredient imports from Canada by value. Canada exports animal feed preparations to Vietnam, but only small quantities of other ingredients.

Overview of key metrics – Animal feed and feed ingredients
Metric Vietnam
Total imports (2017) 14,595,126 tonnes
Growth in import market size by volume (Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) 2013-2017) +25.1%
Total import demand (2017) Can$5,801.7 million
Canada's market share 2%

Opportunities:

Challenges:

Trends in consumption and import demand

The Philippines

As shown in the charts below, the overall demand for both imported feed ingredients and animal feed to the Philippines have increased over the past several years. The value of imported feed ingredients hit a record high of Can$2B in 2018. There is no commercial wheat or small grain (i.e. barley, oats) production in the Philippines.

The Philippines’ animal feed imports from 2000-2018, in thousands of tonnes and millions of dollars
Year Tonnes (thousands) Imports (Can$ - millions)
2000 76.8 87.51
2001 73.6 84.75
2002 82.1 99.81
2003 67.9 75.51
2004 73.5 76.67
2005 83.1 77.73
2006 112.3 91.55
2007 116.5 97.76
2008 141.6 107.99
2009 186.4 143.11
2010 191.0 156.52
2011 181.2 178.33
2012 192.6 194.85
2013 171.2 193.02
2014 174.4 225.86
2015 142.8 233.24
2016 131.4 225.92
2017 185.7 298.12
2018 197.4 341.13
The Philippines’ feed ingredient imports from 2000-2018, in thousands of tonnes and millions of dollars
Year Tonnes (thousands) Imports (Can$ - millions)
2000 1,477.4 442.06
2001 1,369.6 461.38
2002 1,716.7 547.32
2003 1,423.5 425.97
2004 1,339.2 516.30
2005 1,684.8 534.01
2006 1,819.4 452.68
2007 1,687.0 516.18
2008 1,426.9 627.04
2009 1,934.4 674.14
2010 1,457.2 556.19
2011 2,411.5 694.75
2012 1,918.0 880.12
2013 2,080.6 1,038.76
2014 2,867.9 1,425.34
2015 2,243.9 1,279.94
2016 3,585.2 1,711.06
2017 3,314.4 1,608.53
2018 3,997.9 1,994.74

The 2018 Alltech Global Feed Survey estimate the number of Philippine feed mills at around 3,000 and feed production at over 17 million tons. The flourishing domestic hog and poultry industries in the Philippines have resulted in consistent growth in the local feed-milling industry in recent years. The country's poultry production and livestock industry will record continued growth, driven by robust domestic demand for animal feed and continued investment in feed mills.

The most common feed ingredients used by the Philippine feed milling industry are yellow corn—accounting for 50% of formulated animal feed—soybean oil meal, rice bran, coprfa meal, fish meal, and wheat and wheat by-products. Some cassava and sweet potato meals and brewer’s yeast are also used as feed ingredients. In prior years, access to maize has been an issue for the development of the feed milling. The Philippines’ total imports of canola meal (HS 230641/49) is small, at less than US$3 million in 2018. Tropical typhoons and changeable weather conditions can affect farm output of local feed crops such as corn.

Singapore

Singapore is not a significant market for animal feed or feed ingredients. It has very little livestock that requires feeding. According to ASEAN Today in an article on Singapore’s push to boost food security, Singapore supplied 24% of the eggs consumed locally in 2018. A reason for this could be the limited number of poultry layer farms still in Singapore. The volumes of feed and feed ingredients imported are relatively small and growth has been flat for several years.

Singapore’s animal feed imports from 2000-2017, in thousands of tonnes and millions of dollars
Year Tonnes (thousands) Imports (Can$ - millions)
2000 11.8 21.44
2001 25.1 27.99
2002 23.9 53.01
2003 12.6 29.40
2004 16.0 19.80
2005 9.4 11.35
2006 10.5 16.25
2007 12.7 22.89
2008 34.1 36.68
2009 27.6 40.64
2010 22.8 50.80
2011 22.7 47.75
2012 31.8 62.00
2013 37.3 54.95
2014 29.9 54.70
2015 31.3 60.47
2016 26.7 71.89
2017 24.6 67.43
Singapore’s feed ingredient imports from 2000-2017, in thousands of tonnes and millions of dollars
Year Tonnes (thousands) Imports (Can$ - millions)
2000 85.2 20.40
2001 74.7 17.82
2002 79.1 19.15
2003 86.1 21.17
2004 55.9 15.74
2005 82.4 15.70
2006 65.8 16.67
2007 64.9 18.69
2008 51.1 21.42
2009 68.0 24.07
2010 92.4 31.74
2011 101.3 34.81
2012 83.1 30.89
2013 89.7 33.64
2014 84.2 32.93
2015 85.7 35.57
2016 82.1 33.45
2017 96.6 33.43

Vietnam

Vietnam is an agricultural powerhouse, one of the world’s top rice producers and exporters. However, it produces very little corn or soybean and has to import almost all of the feed ingredients for its livestock, poultry and aquaculture. Vietnam is a major importer of soybean meal, corn and DDGS. Imports of animal feed and feed ingredients have risen sharply in recent years, according to UN trade data.

An outbreak of African Swine Fever (ASF) entered Vietnam in February 2019, and since then has spread widely into all parts of the country. This has resulted in the culling of at least 20% of the pig population and has significantly driven up local pork prices, and has led to far-reaching and medium-term impacts on both the pork and animal feed markets. Pork production is slowing down due to fear of ASF, resulting in lower demand for imported feed. At the same time demand for pork imports to Vietnam are on the rise.

Vietnam’s animal feed imports from 2000-2017, in thousands of tonnes and millions of dollars
Year Tonnes (thousands) Imports (Can$ - millions)
2000 56.7 88.02
2001 44.9 71.66
2002 45.0 79.14
2003 64.7 107.68
2004 65.8 103.86
2005 86.5 127.09
2006 102.3 140.76
2007 127.8 170.14
2008 125.8 197.42
2009 130.8 234.28
2010 170.4 278.38
2011 215.4 328.05
2012 Not available Not available
2013 219.2 371.84
2014 246.5 464.18
2015 276.5 605.55
2016 367.2 702.96
2017 335.9 620.24
Note: 2012 data was not available.
Vietnam’s feed ingredient imports from 2000-2017, in thousands of tonnes and millions of dollars
Year Tonnes (thousands) Imports (Can$ - millions)
2000 456.9 143.57
2001 504.8 195.08
2002 942.9 312.58
2003 1,569.7 512.58
2004 1,186.2 466.81
2005 1,534.2 561.75
2006 2,286.2 711.83
2007 3,361.8 1,052.03
2008 4,274.5 1,606.33
2009 3,640.3 1,985.33
2010 5,489.1 2,249.18
2011 5,223.9 2,150.80
2012 Not available Not available
2013 5,747.9 3,181.70
2014 8,901.0 4,185.43
2015 11,948.9 5,549.57
2016 15,699.1 5,772.07
2017 14,259.2 5,181.43
Note: 2012 data was not available.

Regulatory requirements

While there are no major regulatory impediments to the importation of animal feed or feed ingredients to these three ASEAN countries, arduous approval processes may delay Canadian exports or deter Canadian exporters.

Besides meeting Canadian standards, most prepared feed, feed commodities and feed ingredients exported from Canada must comply with additional requirements set by destination countries or markets. The particular requirements you need to comply with differ depending on the product you export and the destination country. More and related information is available through The Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA) Exporting food out of Canada  and Livestock feeds content provides more and related information.

The Philippines

Philippine importers of animal feeds must be registered with the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI) prior to importation. Operating under the jurisdiction of the Philippines Department of Agriculture, the BAI sets the standards for quality in the manufacture, importation, labelling, advertising, distribution and sale of animal feeds, among other products. All animal feeds and animal feed ingredients entering the Philippines need to be accompanied by a sanitary certificate issued by the relevant exporting regulatory body.

Singapore

Regulatory procedures for the importation of animal feed are straightforward and transparent in Singapore. Any local commercial producer of animal feed must get a licence from the Singapore Food Agency (SFA) to manufacture and process animal feed.

Every consignment of animal feed brought onto the country must be accompanied by a Cargo Clearance Permit (CCP), which also serves as an SFA import permit. TradeNet declarations under the appropriate HS and product codes or through an agent are required with supporting documentation (health certificate, manufacturer's declaration, ingredient list, invoices and bill of lading/airway bill).

Vietnam

Canadian feed ingredient exports must meet Vietnamese import requirements, such as being free of quarantine weed seeds. Given Vietnam's increased focus on strengthening its food safety, animal health and plant health control measures, Canadian exporters are encouraged to research any regulatory or market access considerations that might impact their specific products. They should also work with their importer, industry association and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to better understand the requirements applicable to their scenario.

The situation is less conducive for Canadian animal feed exports—including complete feed, premix and additives. The pre-export process to register animal feed products to Vietnam is complicated. Vitamins, enzymes and formulas need to pass conformity assessments to see if they meet Vietnam's national technical standards. In theory, these products also need to conduct in-country trials to prove their efficacy and safety. Imports tend to be limited to a few major brands; smaller producers may be deterred by the process.

According to Vietnam Decree 39/2017, imported animal and aquaculture feeds must be registered with the Department of Livestock Production (DLP) or the Directorate of Fisheries (DOF). The registration dossier should include:

Upon receipt of a valid dossier, a Vietnam competent authority should evaluate the contents of a dossier and issue a decision on the certification of the animal feed within 20 working days.

Competitive environment

The Philippines

Leading animal feed and feed ingredient suppliers to the Philippines are the US, Argentina and Thailand. The US takes advantage of its significant on-the-ground presence in the Philippines through the US Animal Feed Association (USAFA). Canada's competitors in supplying corn to the Philippines in 2017 were Thailand, Argentina, Brazil and the US, among other countries. The soybean meal market is divided between the US (72% of the Philippines total soybean meal imports in 2017), and Argentina (27.5%).

Singapore

Animal feed production in Singapore uses no domestic raw materials. Singapore has to import all its feed ingredients from abroad. Feed ingredients are imported mainly from neighbouring Malaysia.

Vietnam

China is a major supplier of complete animal feed to Vietnam, worth around Can$110 million in 2017. South America is a key competitor for Canada in feed wheat and corn, with the US a strong competitor in corn and soybean meal. The US dominates the supply of DDGS to the Vietnam market, which are used for both an energy and protein source in feed. Canada is not a major producer of DDGS, but faces stiff competition from Argentina, Brazil and India in the soybean meal market. Demand for canola meal is limited due to its perceived uncompetitive price.

Vietnam is also a signatory to a number of free trade agreements (FTAs), which benefit suppliers from Australia, New Zealand and Eastern Europe.

Buyer preferences

Buying behaviours are dependent on the various types of feeds and feed ingredients, the type of end users (backyard versus commercial) and species. Price sensitivity is also a common theme.

The Philippines

Among all the various animal feed ingredients, soybean meal (HS2304) enjoys the largest import demand in the Philippines (2.6M tonnes in 2018) followed by corn (800,000 tonnes). Growth in demand has been very strong across most categories of feed ingredients.

There has been a shift in the buying behaviour of local mills and feed-milling industry in recent years. There is currently no incentive for industry to “stock up” on wheat and wheat stocks are largely private sector-held. Most millers have resorted to “hand-to-mouth” buying.

The Philippines’ animal feed and feed ingredient imports by product
HS Code Product name Imports in 2013 (Thousands of tonnes) Imports in 2018 (Thousands of tonnes) Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) from 2014-2018
1214 Hay, alfalfa and similar forage products, whether or not in the form of pellets. 5.9 7.9 6.2%
2301 Flours, meals and pellets, of meat/meat offal, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates, unfit for human consumption; greaves. 204.5 356.6 11.8%
2302 Bran, sharps and other residues, whether or not in the form of pellets, derived from the sifting, milling or other working of cereals/leguminous plants. 11.0 53.2 37.1%
2303 Residues of starch and similar residues, including brewing or distilling dregs and waste. 56.6 143.3 20.4%
2304 Oil-cake and other solid residues resulting from the extraction of soya-bean oil. 1,518.7 2,619.3 11.5%
100590 Maize (corn), other than seed. 283.6 816.7 23.6%
100830 Canary seeds 0.3 0.9 25.8%
230990 Preparations of a kind used in animal feeding; complete feed; premixes, feed supplements or feed additives. 171.2 197.4 2.9%
Note: There were no imports of HS2308: Vegetable materials and vegetable waste, vegetable residues and by-products as used in animal feeding.

Singapore

With just three poultry layer farms, Singapore buyers source typical poultry feed ingredients, such as corn and soybean meal. For several types of animal feed ingredients, imports into Singapore have contracted or only grown slowly over the past five years. Imports of animal feed preparations, including complete feed, premixes, and supplements/additives, are relatively high, although some of this volume is shipped through Singapore to third markets.

Singapore’s animal feed and feed ingredient imports by product
HS Code Product name Imports in 2012 (Thousands of tonnes) Imports in 2017 (Thousands of tonnes) Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) from 2013-2017
1214 Hay, alfalfa and similar forage products, whether or not in the form of pellets. 2.3 3.2 6.7%
2301 Flours, meals and pellets, of meat/meat offal, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates, unfit for human consumption; greaves 0.3 0.0 -85.2%
2302 Bran, sharps and other residues, whether or not in the form of pellets, derived from the sifting, milling or other working of cereals/leguminous plants. 19.5 10.6 -11.5%
2303 Residues of starch and similar residues, incl. brewing or distilling dregs and waste. Not available 3.9 Not available
2304 Oil-cake and other solid residues resulting from the extraction of soya-bean oil 18.2 20.4 2.3%
2308 Vegetable materials and vegetable waste, vegetable residues and by-products as used in animal feeding. 2.8 1.0 -19.2%
100590 Maize (corn), other than seed. 40.2 57.6 7.5%
230990 Preparations of a kind used in animal feeding; complete feed; premixes, feed supplements or feed additives 31.8 24.6 -5.0%
Note: There were no imports of HS100830: Canary seeds.

Vietnam

Vietnam’s livestock producers have a variety of choices for feed ingredients. Wheat demand in Vietnam can fluctuate with the commodity prices and also the selling prices of pork and poultry. Currently, the main imported ingredients used in Vietnam’s feed industry are corn, soybean meal, feed wheat and DDGS. These imports compete with local supplies of corn, but also rice and cassava.

For feed wheat, gluten content is important for aquaculture feed given the need to suspend the feed in water. The protein profile and humidity levels for feed wheat are also relevant.

Vietnam is an emerging market and is very price sensitive. Once basic protein and quality standards are met, the choice of animal feed ingredients depends on price.

Overview of importers and distributors

The Philippines and Vietnam have substantial feed mill sectors. According to the 2019 Alltech Global Feed Survey, there are 245 feed mills in Vietnam and 526 in the Philippines. However, the average size of feed mills in Vietnam is twice that of those in the Philippines.

Canadian exporters are encouraged to connect with the Trade Commissioner Service in their market of interest for more information.

Comparing feed production in the Philippines and Vietnam
Type of feed mill Philippines production (Millions of tonnes) Vietnam production (Millions of tonnes)
Aquaculture 1.4 3.875
Broiler 3.67 1.455
Dairy 0.038 0.368
Layer 2.44 1.489
Pigs 7.99 11.037
Others (Cattle, pet, equine feed, etc.) 3.442 1.406
Total feed mill production 18.98 19.63
Source: Alltech Global Feed Survey, 2019

The Philippines

The Philippines manufactures a range of animal feeds for swine, broilers, layers, aquaculture and game fowl. Swine accounts for almost half of the feed mill production, with pig farming being the second largest commercial agri-food industry in the Philippines, after the banana industry.

The Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) estimated the Philippines' sow numbers in 2014. Based on their research, the key players in the Philippines' hog industry were:

Feed millers typically produce both poultry and swine feed. Important players in the feed milling industry include:

As is typical in the Philippines, there is a significant degree of vertical integration among the larger conglomerates.

Relevant industry associations include the National Federation of Hog Farmers, the Pork Board, the Philippine Association of Hog Raisers, and the Philippine Swine Association.

The Philippines' import tariff rates for animal feed and feed ingredients

These tariff rates entered into force starting January 1, 2019 and will continue for 2020.

More information is available at The Philippines Tariff Commission – Executive Order 20.

Singapore

There are three chicken layer farms licensed by the Singapore Food Agency (SFA) to produce fresh chicken eggs in Singapore. Singapore produces about one million eggs a day. The three local egg producers are:

There are a few high-end premix producers in Singapore, including:

There are also a number of feed and feed additive companies with regional offices in Singapore such as Bentoli AgriNutrition, Ajinomoto Animal Nutrition.

Vietnam

Besides the global or regional procurement offices of the big agribusiness multinationals, there are a number of smaller importers.

Leading Vietnamese feed millers include:

The industry requires a high level of technology and is capital-intensive, restricting local feed millers to only about a third of the market. Other important importers include major milk producers such as Vinamilk (largest dairy company in Vietnam) and TH Milk.

Leading Vietnamese pig and poultry farmers include Mavin Farm Joint Stock Co and CP Foods, part of Thailand's biggest conglomerate, Charoen Pokphand Group. This presence may grow. In April 2019, CP Foods announced it will invest more than US$200 million to create an export hub for its poultry and pork business in Vietnam to leverage the benefits of the CPTPP free trade agreement, which offers Vietnam advantageous trading terms with such countries as Japan and Australia.

Supply chain dynamics

The Philippines

Feeds are supplied by commercial feed millers to backyard raisers with less than 10 sows per household and some commercial pig producers. It has been estimated that approximately two-thirds of pigs are raised in backyard farms; one third in commercial farms.

Meanwhile, integrators purchase feed ingredients from local producers or from overseas. Included among the local feed ingredients are corn, copra meal and rice bran. Imported ingredients are mainly soybean meal, wheat and corn.

Commercial farms are classified as small, medium and large:

From a completely backyard industry in the 1950s, the poultry sector has almost fully modernised and is now dominated by large integrated contract farming. The Philippines' poultry sector has experienced strong growth in value and volume in recent years. The high demand for chicken meat stems from a range of factors, including:

Poultry has eroded the market shares of other meats.

Vietnam

The major multinationals such as Cargill and ADM all have procurement offices in Canada which will liaise with their representative offices in Vietnam, shipping large volumes of feed commodities in 60,000-70,000 tonne bulk vessels. Their local representatives will work with the Vietnamese buyers. There are also a number of independent importers, buying smaller container volumes.

CPTPP implications

As of April 2019, seven signatories of the CPTPP agreement, including Singapore and Vietnam, have implemented the second round of tariff cuts. A third round of tariff cuts will take place on January 1, 2020, except for Japan which operates on a fiscal year (April 1, 2020).

Four other CPTPP countries still await domestic ratification before implementing their tariff cuts: Brunei, Chile, Peru and Malaysia. The CPTPP will enter into force 60 days after a signatory notifies the CPTPP Depository that it has completed its ratification procedures.

Going forward, economies that meet the high standards of the CPTPP may join the Agreement by accession, potentially furthering the economic benefits for Canada. To date, no economy has formally requested to commence the accession process. Economies that have publicly expressed interest in acceding to the CPTPP include: Thailand, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and Taiwan.

Canadian companies are encouraged to visit CPTPP for Agri-Food Exporters to find more general information on this agreement and how it can benefit your exports to its markets.

CPTPP animal feed and feed ingredient tariffs in Singapore

Singapore does not levy any import duties on animal feed or animal feed ingredients from any source country. Consequently, there is no schedule for CPTPP tariff reductions and no impact on Canada's competitive position.

CPTPP animal feed and feed ingredient tariffs in Vietnam

Through the CPTPP, Canada has a  competitive advantage in feed ingredients exports to Vietnam due to reduced import tariffs; for example for maize (corn) HS 10059090. Other feed ingredients used in Vietnam are soybean oil meal, rice bran, copra meal, fish meal, wheat and wheat by-products. Vietnam's tariff elimination on corn will be phased in gradually over several years, reaching zero in 2023. Wheat or soybean meal used in animal feed do not have any import duties.

Canada's competitive advantage in exporting animal feed and feed ingredients to Vietnam may be diminished when the European Union-Vietnam FTA (EVFTA) enters into force. The European Union and Vietnam are currently undertaking their domestic ratification procedures, however a timeline for completion has not been identified.  

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