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The Spanish meat market: A guide for Canadian business

This guide gives insight on the Spanish meat market with special focus on beef, veal and pork. It offers Canadian meat packers and exporters with practical information to judge the suitability of Spain’s meat market for their business goals.

This information is timely as the Canada-European Union (EU) Comprehensive and Economic Trade Agreement (CETA) entered into force in September 2017, presenting a huge opportunity for the Canadian meat industry. CETA removes EU import tariffs on 50,000 tonnes of Canadian beef and veal, 80,549 tonnes of Canadian pork and 3,000 tonnes of Canadian bison.

Note on research

This research was commissioned and overseen by the Embassy of Canada to Spain and its Trade Commissioners. A survey was carried out in December 2018 and January 2019 and is based on data extracted from different public and private sources, personal meetings with stakeholders, an online questionnaire addressed to main Spanish meat wholesalers and different store checks in meat retail stores.

Unless otherwise noted, the data, statistics and trends on the Spanish meat market have been sourced from the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación).

The Government of Canada has prepared this report based on primary and secondary sources of information. Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information is accurate, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) assumes no liability for any actions taken based on the information contained herein.

Recommendations

For Canadian beef exporters

Selling Canadian beef in Spain should typically be through the big wholesalers. Retailers or foodservice companies would probably not be buying big volumes. With beef from the US or other origins like Australia, retailers and restaurants prefer sourcing the beef from their usual suppliers, the big wholesalers.

Spanish wholesalers would not be capable, in most cases, to purchase full container loads with all the cuts of the carcass. In the case that Canadian packers would need to sell the animal in its natural proportion (all cuts), and the Spanish importers would not be able to buy them all, any one of the major European meat importers could be contacted:

Canadian exporters interested in the Spanish market should consider travelling to Spain, meeting with the main players, and collecting first-hand information and offer details about their products. Visiting Spanish trade shows would also be advisable, examples include:

Meat processors are not likely to buy Canadian grain-fed beef as it is too expensive of a product for processing.

For Canadian pork exporters

Selling Canadian pork products in Spain may prove to be difficult. Spain is a big producer and prices are quite competitive. Spanish consumers are used to high-quality Ibérico pork products and would probably not consider other origins for their purchases, unless the prices were very competitive.

Canadian pork exporters would need to find value-added products or sell directly to the processing industry. At this moment, and considering current production and prices, there seem be limited opportunities for Canadian pork in the Spanish market.

In the case of pork products, Canadian companies could contact the main processors:

Summary analysis of the Spanish meat market

High-level strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

The Canada-European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA)

CETA enhances opportunities, reducing or eliminating tariffs for Canadian exports to Spain and the EU as a whole. CETA establishes Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQs) for Canadian meat products, meaning that products can enter the EU duty-free up until a certain quota volume:

To learn more about CETA and how it can impact your exports, visit CETA for Agri-Food Exporters.

Spanish wholesalers and the availability of Canadian meat in Spain

The supply of Canadian meat products in Spain was almost non-existent as of January 2019. Some Canadian beef and pork is available in other EU markets like the United Kingdom (UK), Germany or Sweden, being distributed by a couple of companies that are importing from Canadian packers.

Canada's international trading partners often require the exporters or various parts of the distribution chain to be identified on a registry or list, either maintained by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) or by the foreign competent authority (FCA). In Canada, there are a limited number of federally registered meat establishments approved for export to the EU. These packers get their supply from different sources and cattlemen who are already carrying out Non-Hormone Treated Cattle (NHTC) programs. The following resources have supporting information for Canadian meat exporters:

In Spain there are 56 major meat wholesalers, most which are located in the wholesale markets of Madrid and Barcelona. Some of them are sourcing grain-fed, high-quality beef produced in the US, Australia, Uruguay or Argentina.  In some cases, such as for Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil, these wholesalers buy directly from the packers. However, that is not the case for beef from the US and Australia; they purchase that beef from major importers based in other EU countries, mainly the Netherlands, Italy, Germany or Monaco.

Out of the list of 56 potential Spanish buyers, this is a selection of those who might offer the largest potential for Canadian exporters:

The meat industry in Spain

An overview of Spain’s meat industry

According to the National Association of Meat Industries of Spain, meat is the fourth-largest industrial sector in Spain, behind the automotive industry, the oil and fuel industry and the electricity production and distribution industry. The meat sector represents 2.1% of the total Spanish gross domestic product (GDP).

The industrial fabric of the sector includes abattoirs, cutting plants and processing plants and comprises around 3,000 companies, distributed throughout Spain, particularly in rural areas. This sector also features 584 slaughter houses, 2,276 cutting plants and 4,948 processing plants.

Although a significant part of the sector comprises small and medium-sized companies, this has not prevented the gradual development and consolidation of large business groups, some of them leaders at the European level. The joint production of all these companies makes the meat industry by far the largest in the entire Spanish food and beverage sector, representing an output of 24 billion euros and 22.3% of the entire Spanish food sector in 2017.

In 2017, the Spanish meat industry exported more than 2.3 million tons of meat, offal and processed products of all kinds, with a very positive trade balance of 477%, seeing over 5.5 billion euros of exports and 1.1 billion euros in imports.

Meat production in Spain over time in tons
Sector 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Pork 3,431,219 3,620,222 3,854,658 4,181,091 4,298,892
Poultry 1,342,578 1,436,689 1,446,990 1,526,631 1,528,845
Beef and veal 580,840 578,600 626,104 637,013 643,861
Ovine/Sheep 118,261 114,220 115,864 117,054 115,114
Rabbit 63,289 63,790 63,461 59,589 57,258
Horse 11,668 11,529 12,940 13,088 11,034
Goat 8,940 8,622 9,120 9,904 10,713

The Spanish beef and veal sector

In 2017, this sector accounted for 9.7% of Spain’s meat production and was the third-largest meat sector, behind pork and poultry. Compared to others in the region, Spain is the EU’s fifth-largest cattle producer in terms of volume. It is behind France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy. Spain is also the 14th largest beef and veal exporter in the world.

In 2017, Spain’s total cattle census amounted to 6,254,495 animals, 1.2% higher than the previous year. There were 2,391,003 slaughtered cattle animals, with a total cattle weight of 643,861 tons. The average carcass price for a heifer was 38.09 Euros per kilogram.

Volume of Spanish cattle production as a percentage of the EU total
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Year Production
2008 8.1%
2009 7.7%
2010 7.9%
2011 7.9%
2012 7.8%
2013 8.0%
2014 7.9%
2015 8.3%
2016 8.2%
2017 8.3%

Source: Eurostat

Value of Spanish cattle production in millions of euros
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Year Value of production
2008 2,196.2
2009 2,269.0
2010 2,325.1
2011 2,495.0
2012 2,642.7
2013 2,700.5
2014 2,718.0
2015 2,865.0
2016 3,101.8
2017 3,283.3

The Spanish pork sector

According to the National Association of Meat Industries of Spain, pork production is the main segment in the Spanish meat industry, representing over 64% of all meat. Spain is the world’s fourth largest producer of pork meat, representing 3.75% of the global production, and is behind China, the United Sates of America (USA) and Germany. Spain is the EU’s second-largest meat producer, representing 18.4% of the EU total.

The Spanish swine sector has experienced expansion and continuous growth in recent years. In 2017, the Spanish swine sector reached an output of 15,000 million Euros. This was largely due to an increase in sales abroad, which reached 5,000 million in 2017, and increased from 2,400 million in 2008. In addition, 2017 saw 49.6 million pigs slaughtered in Spain, with over 4.2 million tons of pork being produced.

With a very positive trade balance, Spain has also seen an increase in pork exports to third (non-EU) countries; especially in China, which is Spain’s first destination for pork.

Volume of Spanish pork production as a percentage of the EU total
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Year Production
2008 15.3%
2009 14.7%
2010 15.1%
2011 15.3%
2012 15.6%
2013 15.5%
2014 16.2%
2015 16.7%
2016 17.7%
2017 18.4%

Source: Eurostat

The Spanish processed meats sector

Spain produces 1.4 billion tons of processed meats per year, being the EU’s fourth-largest producer behind Germany, Italy and France. Spain also has one of the richest traditions in producing and consuming a varied selection of ham and prepared meat (charcuterie) products. It’s meat production is diverse, extends throughout the nation and is part of its cultural and gastronomic heritage, with Spanish processed meat products considered popular worldwide.

In terms of value, the biggest category is cured ham and pork shoulder - including Ibérico. Spanish consumers’ preferred products are cured, Serrano and Ibérico hams. Those are the flagship products in terms of meat production in Spain. Serrano and Ibérico ham exceed 30% of the value of products marketed in the self-service and specialist channels.

In terms of volume, cooked meats are the largest category. Cooked turkey leads this category, followed by cooked hams, sausages and chorizo. This is mainly due to the spectacular growth that cooked turkey has experienced in recent years.

An overview of Spanish food consumption

After the financial crisis that dramatically hit the Spanish economy in the early 2000’s, household spending on food has slightly recovered and reached stability at around 57% to 58% of GDP. According to the Spanish National Bank (Banco de España), household spending on goods and services has performed well since mid-2013, making it one of the main drivers of the Spanish economy’s recent recovery. Despite that recovery, at the end of 2017 food spending was still approximately 6% below its pre-crisis level.

Change in Spanish household food consumption over time as a share of GDP
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Year Share of GDP
2000 59.7%
2001 59.2%
2002 58.5%
2003 57.6%
2004 57.9%
2005 57.7%
2006 57.3%
2007 57.0%
2008 57.7%
2009 56.1%
2010 57.2%
2011 57.8%
2012 58.8%
2013 58.4%
2014 58.7%
2015 58.0%
2016 57.6%
2017 57.7%

Sources: The World Bank, Spanish National Bank

Spanish household consumption on food

In 2017, Spaniards ingested an average of 751.4 kilograms of food and beverages. Total consumption in Spain was 102,584.72 million euros, which represented an average expenditure of 2,525.71 euros per person per year and a 3.6% increase in total food spending compared to 2015.

Spanish food consumption habits in 2017 by category
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Category Share of sales
Food 80.4%
Cold Drinks 13.3%
Hot Drinks 6.3%
Change in Spanish food spending over time in millions of euro
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Year Spending
2009 102,498
2010 103,830
2011 101,991
2012 100,678
2013 101,250
2014 98,052
2015 99,037
2016 100,002
2017 102,584

Emerging trends in Spanish food consumption

According to Kantar WorldPanel, household spending on groceries grew by 1.3% in 2017. This recovery was driven by increased demand (+1% of volume market growth), even though the average price paid remained at around +0.3%. In Spain, these figures meant that every household spent an average of 4,190 euros a year on their food and personal and household care products, which was up 1% on 2016.

One of the main catalysts for the market in 2017 was a growing consumer trend towards healthier habits. For households:

Fresh perishable products recorded growth of +0.9% in terms of value over the last twelve months and continue to be the main source of business for modern retailers, leading to 3.9% growth in this sector. Of these products, the big movers are closely related to health and "superfoods", such as avocado (+25.7%), salmon (+13.4%), cabbage (+12.3%), cod (+11.3%), bananas (+5.8%) and eggs (+4.3%).

This healthier trend was also observed in packaged foods, which rose by 2.2% in value terms. The categories that grew the most in this sector were those most associated with a balanced diet: chickpeas (+13.3%), lentils (13.0%) and nuts (11.6%). It was also an outstanding year for organic food, with products packaged with a bio/eco label growing by 14% and are now consumed by 4 in every 10 households.

Meat consumption in Spain

According to the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación), Spanish meat consumption has been quite stable in terms of value over the past five years, generally being an average of 14.3% of total food consumption. Variations in general food consumption have not been big either, which means that despite the difficult economic conditions in Spain, food expenditures have not been hit very hard.

Change in Spanish meat consumption over time in millions of euros
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Year Meat consumption
2013 14,573
2014 14,632
2015 14,038
2016 14,244
2017 15,168
Snapshot of the most consumed meats in Spain for 2017
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Category Share of consumption
Fresh poultry 27%
Processed meats 24%
Fresh pork 21%
Rest of meats 13%
Fresh beef and veal 11%
Fresh ovine/sheep 3%

Spanish fresh meat consumption

When looking at Spanish fresh meat consumption on a quantity basis, all fresh meat categories, except for offal, have gone through rather severe cuts in the recent year. Per capita consumption decreased an average of 7% in the last 5 years. Spanish consumers are shown to be quite sensitive to prices, which could be a contributing factor. While poultry (mainly chicken) is the most consumed meat product in Spain, it has also experienced a dramatic decrease in consumption in the last 10 years. Pork consumption, which has been traditionally strong in Spain, is also suffering and is the most variable. This could be caused by the image of the industry, lately linked to questionable production methods, footprint, animal welfare and nutritional composition of the processed products.

Change in Spanish fresh meat consumption over time in thousands of kilograms
Category 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Fresh poultry 653.6 635.2 614.9 608.7 592.3
Processed meats 572.0 534.8 523.5 516.5 521.7
Fresh pork 484.2 481.5 485.8 468.6 466.4
Rest of meats 312.1 292.0 283.7 288.0 285.7
Fresh beef and veal 280.6 263.8 253.9 246.4 236.5
Fresh ovine/sheep 86.9 79.9 75.1 72.3 68.1

Spanish fresh and processed pork, beef and veal consumption

In Spain, pork consumption is more than double that of beef. Due to the financial crisis that hit the Spanish households, consumption of these products significantly decreased until 2012. Since then, a slight recovery has taken place for both types of meat, although 2017 was a poor year for consumption.

Change in Spanish pork consumption over time in kilograms per person
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Year Consumption
2008 55.3
2009 50.6
2010 53
2011 52.7
2012 49.7
2013 50.8
2014 52.7
2015 53.5
2016 54.2
2017 52.5

The average per capita consumption of pork is decreasing again, despite seeing a recovery over the last years. According to professionals in the Spanish meat industry, this reduction is expected to continue over the coming years due to the new trends in general food consumption and a generalized reduction of protein intake from animal sources.

Change in Spanish fresh and processed pork over time in total tons consumed
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Year Fresh pork Processed pork
2008 519,962 511,546
2009 517,761 558,478
2010 512,837 561,386
2011 493,487 560,439
2012 491,808 573,289
2013 492,748 575,631
2014 479,003 535,435
2015 485,768 523,543
2016 468,637 516,478
2017 466,429 523,617

There is a slight decrease in the consumption of fresh pork and an evident rebound of processed pork products. The difference in consumption between fresh and processed pork is quite relevant and shows the preference of Spanish consumers for cured sausages and hams, but also for ready-to-eat pork meals, cooked sausages and hams and other convenience formats.

Change in Spanish beef and veal consumption over time in kilograms per person
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Year Consumption
2008 13.40
2009 13.20
2010 13.20
2011 12.50
2012 12.10
2013 11.90
2014 12.00
2015 12.30
2016 12.70
2017 12.70

Beef and veal have also seen a trend towards slowing consumption, similar to pork.

Change in Spanish meat prices and consumption from 2010-2017
Product Price variation % Per capita consumption variation %
Pork 0% −4%
Other processed meats 0% 18%
Other meats 1% 2%
Processed meat/charcuterie 5% −5%
Beef 7% −21%
Poultry 10% −2%
Offal 11% 33%
Goat/ovine 19% −37%

As shown in the table above, Spanish pork prices have not changed from 2010-2017, which means that the decrease in consumption is not directly linked to this price stability. Beef prices have increased by 7%, although the decrease in per capita consumption has been more than 20%. Reasons for such a general decrease in per capita consumption in Spain seem to be diverse, and not necessarily linked to prices.

Emerging trends in Spanish meat consumption

In Spain, the total consumption of meat, like in many other developed countries, is progressively slowing down. Experts have many reasons to explain this trend, including:

According to Euromonitor International, red meat is facing additional challenges because of its link to high cholesterol and coronary heart disease. But, consumers are not eliminating meat from their diets entirely. They are embracing the "less, but better" approach, favoring "clean" and "natural" meat products. This attitude is expected to see value sales of fresh meat bounce back as consumers choose less processed, higher welfare meat such as organic or free-range. Consumers are increasingly swapping out meat in favour of plant-based alternatives. Therefore, the affordability of premium meat is justified by simply buying less.

According to Ipsos Global Advisor, meat is still a dietary option for more than 90% of Spaniards, with 75% identifying themselves as omnivores. Moreover, almost 16% identify themselves as flexitarian, in that they mostly consume plant-based foods with some consumption of meat and animal-based products.

The introduction of new habits among Spanish consumers is having a real impact on meat consumption patterns, with more young consumers looking into new formats, healthier alternatives and more sustainable products. The industry is therefore focused on developing new products that meet consumer trends. That includes attributes such as low-salt, low cholesterol, more sustainable, organic, less additives, less sugar, and so on. All sources indicate an even bigger descent in the coming years as new and alternative flexitarian, vegetarian, pescatarian and vegan diets seem to gather momentum among younger consumers.

Meat consumption in Spain and Canada for 2017 in kilograms per person
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Canada Spain
Beef 25.1 12.7
Pork 21.4 52.5

Sources: Statistics Canada, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food

Distribution

This section provides top-level information on meat distribution in Spain.

Breakdown of Spanish meat distribution for 2017 in tons of meat sold
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Note: Hypermarkets are considered to be over 2,500 square metres in size.

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Distribution channel Share of 2017 meat sales
Supermarkets 54%
Butcher shops and traditional stores 21%
Hypermarkets 13%
Discount retailers 12%
Online 1%
Change in Spanish meat distribution over time in tons of meat sold
Distribution channel 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Supermarkets 1,050,000 1,040,000 1,031,000 1,029,000 984,000 986,000 978,000 1,032,000
Butcher shops and traditional stores 553,000 551,000 540,000 510,000 460,000 425,000 424,000 395,000
Hypermarkets 269,000 262,000 279,000 273,000 274,000 261,000 250,000 243,000
Discount retailers 169,000 181,000 199,000 198,000 199,000 210,000 221,000 222,000
Online N/A N/A N/A 8,000 10,200 10,200 13,000 14,100

Note: N/A means not available.

Comparing Spanish meat distribution in tons of meat sold for 2017 to 2016
Distribution channel Share of 2017 meat sales Change in share when comparing 2016 to 2017
Supermarkets 54% 5.5%
Butcher shops and traditional stores 21% −6.8%
Hypermarkets 13% −2.8%
Discount retailers 12% 0.5%
Online 1% 8.5%
Comparing average prices for fresh meat in Spain by distribution channel for 2017 in Euros/Kilogram
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Note: Prices across all channels have increased some 3% when comparing 2016 to 2017.

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Distribution channel Average price
Butcher shops and traditional stores 7.45
Online 6.87
Hypermarkets 6.85
Supermarkets 6.16
Discount retailers 5.76
Others 6.78
National average 6.55

Annex 1: Example prices and formats in the Spanish meat industry by retailer

This annex provides information on meat prices and formats as of December 2018 across a range of Spanish retailers.

Alcampo

Product Breed Cut Format Weight (Grams) Price (Euros per kilogram)
beef (adult animal) knuckle (sirloin tip) filets 550 8.85
Beef (adult animal) outside round (flat) filets 430 13.35
beef (adult animal) rib eye roll filets 500 16.95
beef (adult animal) black angus t-bone filets 800 25.95
beef (adult animal) red hereford t-bone filets 500 25.95
beef (heifer 12-24 months) rib eye roll filets 450 16.95
beef (heifer 12-24 months) tenderloin medallion 320 35.95
beef (heifer 12-24 months) designation of origin sierra de guadarrama tenderloin medallion 250 36.95
beef (heifer 12-24 months) top (inside) round filets 500 13.95
beef (heifer 12-24 months) designation of origin ternera gallega top (inside) round filets 550 24.95
veal designation of origin ternera gallega bottom round filets 500 18.95
veal chuckroll filets 450 7.35
veal rib eye roll filets 320 24.95
veal shank filets 300 16.95
veal designation of origin sierra de guadarrama tenderloin medallion 250 36.95
veal designation of origin ternera gallega top (inside) round filets 500 18.95
veal top (inside) round filets 280 22.45
veal top sirloin butt filets 280 22.45

Examples of pork products distributed by Alcampo

Ibérico - Shoulder filets (18.95 Euro/KG)
Duroc – Belly (6.95 Euro/KG)
Duroc - Whole loin (12.95 Euro/KG)
Duroc (11.95 Euro/KG)
Ibérico – Whole tenderloin (16.95 Euro/KG)
Chuck filets (10.95 Euro/KG)
Loin filets (5.55 Euro/KG)
Cheek (9.95 Euro/KG)
Ribs (3.95 Euro/KG)

Carrefour

Product Breed Cut Format Weight (Grams) Price (Euros per kilogram)
beef (heifer 12-24 months) eye of the round fillets 500 10.90
beef (heifer 12-24 months) eye of the round fillets 450 16.90
beef (heifer 12-24 months) loin whole 1,100 13.90
beef (heifer 12-24 months) black angus Ireland loin whole 1,000 33.90
beef (heifer 12-24 months) eco/bio loin medallion 400 38.90
beef (heifer 12-24 months) rib eye roll fillets 600 13.80
beef (heifer 12-24 months) eco/bio rib eye roll medallion 270 19.99
beef (heifer 12-24 months) angus Spain rib eye roll filets 500 34.98
beef (heifer 12-24 months) wagyu Spain rib eye roll filets 330 113.64
beef (heifer 12-24 months) shank whole 500 7.90
beef (heifer 12-24 months) sirlloin butt portions 450 9.50
beef (heifer 12-24 months) tail portions 500 9.20
beef (heifer 12-24 months) tenderloin medallion 500 25.90
beef (heifer 12-24 months) Argentina tenderloin whole 1,100 34.90
beef (heifer 12-24 months) wagyu Spain tenderloin filets 150 103.33
beef (heifer 12-24 months) top (inside) round fillets 500 14.90
beef (heifer 12-24 months) top sirloin cap whole 1,000 8.80
veal designation of origin sierra de guadarrama loin fillets 500 16.90
veal loin filets 500 21.50
veal rib eye roll filets 500 21.50
veal designation of origin sierra de guadarrama short ribs portions 500 7.90

Examples of pork products distributed by Carrefour

Tenderloin (7.85 Euro/KG)
Loin marinated filets (6.20 Euro/KG)
Loin filets (6.65 Euro/KG)
Portion of loin (4.99 Euro/KG)
Portioned ribs (5.62 Euro/KG)
Ibérico – Loin marinated filets (16.00 Euro/KG)
Spare ribs (3.95 Euro/KG)
Marinated whole loin (6.50 Euro/KG)
Belly filets (7.58 Euro/KG)

El Corte Inglés

Product Breed Cut Format Weight (Grams) Price (Euros per kilogram)
beef (adult animal) ribe eye roll filets 300 39.90
beef (adult animal) ribe eye roll filets 300 39.90
beef (heifer 12-24 months) chuck roll filets 600 9.90
beef (heifer 12-24 months) knuckle (sirloin tip) medallions 250 19.95
beef (heifer 12-24 months) black angus Spain knuckle (sirloin tip) filets 250 20.95
beef (heifer 12-24 months) loin filets 400 22.95
beef (heifer 12-24 months) tenderloin medallions 400 39.90
beef (heifer 12-24 months) top sirloin butt portion 230 28.26
veal chuck eye roll filets 400 15.95
veal eye of the round whole 750 20.21
veal eco/bio eye of the round filets 600 21.95
veal tenderloin medallions 350 46.95

Examples of meat products distributed by El Corte Inglés

Argentina – Top sirloin butt (23.95 Euro/KG)
Argentina – Ribeye (32.95 Euro/KG)
Angus – Skirt (15.95 Euro/KG)
Angus – Chuck roll (18.95 Euro/KG)
Galician veal – Shank (14.95 Euro/KG)
Veal – Loin filets (13.03 Euro/KG)
Old animal castrated male – Tenderloin (49.90 Euro/KG)
Old animal castrated male – Chuck eye roll (43.90 Euro/KG)
Wagyu – Tenderloin (119.67 Euro/KG)
Ibérico – Whole tenderloin (12.75 Euro/KG)
Ibérico – Loin filets (20.95 Euro/KG)
Ibérico – Marinated chuck filets (23.95 Euro/KG)
BIO/ECO – Loin filets (19.95 Euro/KG)
BIO/ECO – Marinated loin filets (21.25 Euro/KG
Marinated whole tenderloin (9.25 Euro/KG)
Duroc – Tenderloin filets (10.50 Euro/KG)
Duroc – Ribs (6.95 Euro/KG)
Loin chops (6.70 Euro/KG)

Sanchez Romero

Product Breed Cut Format Weight (Grams) Price (Euros per kilogram)
beef (adult animal) striploin portions 300 39.95
beef (adult animal) t-bone portion 1,000 35.00
beef (adult animal) tenderloin portion 150 48.50
beef (heifer 12-24 months) Argentina ribeye roll (lip off) portion 150 36.95
beef (heifer 12-24 months) black angus USA ribeye roll (lip off) portion 150 76.00
beef (heifer 12-24 months) wagyu Spain ribeye roll (lip off) portion 150 147.00
beef (heifer 12-24 months) Argentina striploin portions 150 36.95
veal chuck roll filets 150 14.95
veal chuck roll filets 150 22.95
veal eye of the round whole 1,200 18.95
veal eye of the round whole 1,200 28.95
veal knuckle (sirloin tip) filets 150 18.95
veal outside round (flat) filets 150 15.95
veal tenderloin portion 150 51.95
veal top (inside) round filets 150 21.90
veal top (inside) round filets 150 28.95
veal top sirloin butt filets 150 28.95

Examples of meat products distributed by Sanchez Romero

Wagyu – Rib eye roll (147 Euro/KG)
USA Angus – Rib eye (76 Euro/KG)
Veal tenderloin (51.95 Euro/KG)
Argentina – Striploin (36.95 Euro/KG)
Old Animal – Rib eye with bone (35 Euro/KG)
Ibérico – Marinated loin filets (35.95 Euro/KG)
Ibérico – Whole tenderloin (28.95 Euro/KG)
Marinated ribs (10.95 Euro/KG)
Duroc – Loin chops (9.95 Euro/KG)
Salted pork belly portions (10.95 Euro/KG)
Salted pork knuckle (6.70 Euro/KG)

Other Spanish retailers

Retailer Product Breed Cut Format Weight (Grams) Price (Euros per kilogram)
ALIMERKA veal eco/bio rib eye roll filets 250 13.95
ALIMERKA veal origin Asturias rib eye roll filets 500 14.99
BONPREU beef (heifer 12-24 months) black angus rib eye roll filets 300 33.30
BONPREU veal top (inside) round filets 150 20.83
BONPREU veal tenderloin whole 1,200 41.99
CAPRABO veal rib eye roll filets 400 19.99
CAPRABO veal tenderloin medallion 350 32.50
CAPRABO veal designation of origin ternera gallega t-bone filets 400 18.95
CAPRABO veal designation of origin ternera gallega tenderloin medallion 400 36.95
CONDIS veal origin Asturias ribe eye roll filets 500 16.96
CONSUM beef (heifer 12-24 months) ribe eye roll filets 300 15.95
CONSUM beef (heifer 12-24 months) tenderloin portions 250 34.50
DIA beef (heifer 12-24 months) ribe eye roll filets 500 14.99
DIA beef (heifer 12-24 months) top sirloin butt portions 230 20.22
EROSKI beef (adult animal) rib eye roll filets 800 15.95
EROSKI beef (adult animal) tenderloin filets 300 37.80
EROSKI beef (heifer 12-24 months) knuckle (sirloin tip) filets 350 11.86
EROSKI beef (heifer 12-24 months) ribe eye roll filets 970 12.40
EROSKI beef (heifer 12-24 months) rib eye roll filets 500 24.96
EROSKI veal inside skirt filets 500 5.90
EROSKI veal short ribs portions 500 6.90
EROSKI veal tail portions 500 9.46
EROSKI veal tail portions 700 9.96
EROSKI veal eye of the round filets 500 14.26
EROSKI veal top (inside) round filets 500 14.90
EROSKI veal knuckle (sirloin tip) filets 500 15.46
EROSKI veal tenderloin portions 400 37.95
EROSKI veal designation of origin ternera gallega top sirloin butt filets 370 16.95
EROSKI veal designation of origin ternera gallega t-bone portions 300 18.97
EROSKI veal designation of origin ternera gallega rib eye roll filets 400 23.45
EROSKI veal eco/bio loin filets 600 19.95
MERCADONA beef (heifer 12-24 months) short ribs portions 250 5.40
MERCADONA beef (heifer 12-24 months) rib eye roll filets 500 16.90
MERCADONA beef (heifer 12-24 months) tenderloin whole 1,000 25.90
MERCADONA beef (heifer 12-24 months) angus Spain rib eye roll portions 500 33.00
MERCADONA veal rib eye roll filets 500 21.50

Annex 2: Survey of Spanish wholesalers

In December 2018, the Embassy of Canada to Spain commissioned FM Consulting to survey Spanish wholesalers. The survey focused on beef and was offered to 55 Spanish wholesalers, with 12 responding – a 22% response rate.

Question 1: Is your company currently buying or have you ever bought Canadian beef?

Question 2: What is the origin of the beef you are currently buying?

Country Response rate
U.S. 81.8%
Other European 72.7%
Local (my country) 54.5%
Uruguay 54.5%
Argentina 36.4%
Australia 36.4%
Brazil 36.4%
New Zealand 27.3%
Other 18.2%
Namibia 9.1%

Question 3: What is your overall perception of Canada as a country?

Perception Response rate
Excellent 18.2%
Very good 63.6%
Good 18.2%
Poor 0.0%
Very poor 0.0%

Question 4: What brings Canadian beef to your mind?

Attribute Response rate
The taste is good 54.5%
Good packaging and branding 45.5%
The texture is right 45.5%
I have no opinion 36.4%
Healthy cattle 36.4%
The marbling is adequate 36.4%
Is clearly different from other origins 27.3%
High quality standards 27.3%
Shelf life is long enough 27.3%
Its positioning is higher than Australian beef 18.2%
The price is correct 18.2%
It is graded properly and clearly 18.2%
Cattle raised ethically 9.1%
The yield is adequate 9.1%
Its positioning is higher than US beef 0.0%
The supply is consistent 0.0%

Question 5: Compared to the imported beef you currently have, how is Canadian beef?

Question 6: Would you like your current meat suppliers to offer Canadian beef to you?

Question 7: Would you be willing and able to buy directly from a Canadian exporter if possible?

Response Response rate
Yes, I would be able to buy Full Container Loads 63.6%
No, I don't buy more than 5 tons per month 18.2%
Not at all 9.1%
Yes, if I'm not pushed to buy FCL and take all the cuts of the animal 9.1%
No, I don't buy more than 10 tons per month 0.0%

Question 8: What information would you like to have?

Type of information Response rate
Transportation 90.9%
Cattle breeds 81.8%
Marbling 81.8%
Grading system and labels 72.7%
Why is Canadian Beef different? 63.6%
Size and characteristics of the Canadian beef industry 54.5%
Non-Hormone Treated Cattle (NHTC) programs 54.5%
Slaughtering process 45.5%
Inspections 45.5%
Cow/calf operations 36.4%
Feeding and feeding lots 36.4%

Question 9: Which beef cuts would be more interesting to buy from Canada, if any?

Beef cut Response rate
Sirloin-Loin 90.9%
Rib 45.5%
Chuck 36.4%
Hip-Round 36.4%
Trimmings-Offal 18.2%
Brisket-Shank 9.1%
Flank plate 9.1%

Question 10: What would be the top cooking applications for the beef you sell to your customers?

Cooking application Response rate
Grilling 100.0%
Oven roasting 36.4%
Stir-fry 36.4%
Braising 18.2%
Stewing 18.2%
Marinating 9.1%

Question 11: What would be the seasonality (if any) for your beef sales?

Season Response rate
All year around 72.7%
Spring-Easter 18.2%
Summertime 18.2%
Christmas 18.2%
Autumn 9.1%

Question 12: In your opinion, what would be the best options to start promoting Canadian beef in Europe?

Option Response rate
Trade missions to Canada to meet exporters 72.7%
Seminars to wholesalers 54.5%
Seminars to retailers, cash & carry, and caterers 36.4%
Seminars to processors 18.2%
Seminars to chefs 18.2%
Trade missions of Canadian exporters to Europe 18.2%
Seminars to journalists 9.1%
Social media 9.1%

Annex 3: Macroeconomic trends and data

Note: Throughout this annex the author is referring to and providing information on statistics collected by Euromonitor International and the Spanish Statistics Institute (Insituto Nacional de Stadistica).

General economic outlook

The Spanish economy contracted sharply from 2008-2013, forcing the government to increase taxes, freeze public salaries and limit spending on a variety of services. The large external and internal imbalances that accumulated during the previous boom undermined private consumption and investment. Millions of jobs were lost and banks were left with huge amounts of bad loans.

Growth in the Spanish economy returned in 2014. The turnaround has been supported by employment creation, easier financing conditions, improved confidence and lower oil prices. Labour market reforms, an overhaul of the banking system and a reduced deficit also provided a crucial boost.

The Spanish economic rebound began to broaden in 2015 and the recovery continued in 2016 and 2017. In 2016, Spain’s GDP was $1.24 Trillion and its GDP per capita was $39,087 in 2017. For context, Canada’s GDP per capita was $46,510 in 2017, while the EU’s GDP per capita was $42,509 in that same year.

The Spanish economy continued to strengthen in 2018, when gains in consumer spending drove growth, funded by increased government spending measures, higher-than-expected real wage growth and an increase in employment.

A more balanced growth pattern has emerged in recent years, with both domestic and external demand contributing to the economy. Gains in employment have boosted both household incomes and consumer spending. Business investment also rose, supported by stronger confidence and improved profit margins.

The Spanish economy is forecast to lose some steam in 2019. Real GDP should increase by 2.3% after gains of 2.5% in 2018. Private final consumption (in real terms) rose by 2.6% in 2018, but growth will dip to 1.9% in 2019 as the pace of job creation moderates. The benefits of a recent improvement in financial conditions will also begin to fade. Growth of real GDP will moderate by 2020, dipping to 1.9%. The economy will continue to decelerate in later years, falling to about 1.2% per year by 2026.

To offer a regional perspective, the Catalonia region in northeastern Spain accounts for nearly 20% of GDP. Many Catalonian companies have frozen investment and hiring decisions. The region has also lost thousands of jobs and some companies are moving their headquarters to other parts of Spain. Spanish officials estimate that the crisis cut growth by half a percentage point in 2018.

Trading environment

In 2016 Spain exported $270B across all sectors, making it the 15th largest exporter in the world. It’s top export destinations are France, Germany, Portugal, the United Kingdom and Italy. During the last five years Spain’s exports have decreased at an annualized rate of -0.9%, from $286B in 2011 to $270B in 2016.

In 2016 Spain imported $300B across all sectors, making it the 15th largest importer in the world. It’s top import origins are Germany, France, China, Italy and the United States. During the last five years Spain’s imports have decreased at an annualized rate of -3.3%, from $352B in 2011 to $300B in 2016.

Population trends

Spain’s population increased from 45.6 million in 2008 to 46.5 million in 2018. That is forecast to decrease to 45.9 by 2028, and if the current demographic trends continue, Spain will lose one million inhabitants in the next 15 years and 5.6 million in the next 50 years.

The percentage of people over 65 years of age currently stands at 18.2% and is forecast to increase to 24.9% in 2029 and to 38.7% in 2064. In 2015 the number of deaths was higher than the number of births. The reduction of resident population is mainly due to the progressive increase of deaths and the decrease of births, which is a phenomenon that will be particularly pronounced from 2040 on.

Spain’s population growth over time
Year Spanish population (Millions)
2000 40.470
2001 40.666
2002 41.035
2003 41.828
2004 42.548
2005 43.296
2006 44.010
2007 44.785
2008 45.669
2009 46.239
2010 46.487
2011 46.667
2012 46.818
2013 46.728
2014 46.512
2015 46.450
2016 46.440
2017 46.528

By 2030, Spain will be the fourth-oldest country in the world by median age. Falling births and increasing deaths mean that negative natural change will accelerate in 2017-2030. The over fifty age cohort will increase rapidly, by almost 29%.

Although net immigration is expected to be positive in 2017-2030, it will not be enough to mitigate population decline. Urban population is expected to increase by 1.7% in 2017-2030.

Changes to Spain’s population by age grouping
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Description of above image
Population statistic 2018 2028 (Forecast)
Total Spanish population 46.5 million 45.9 million
Percentage of population aged 0 - 14 15% 12%
Percentage of population aged 15 - 64 66% 64%
Percentage of population 65 years and over 19% 24%

Spain’s households

Since 2010, there have been over 18 million households in Spain. Over the past decade, the size of Spanish households have been constantly shrinking with the average household size decreasing to 2.49 persons per household in 2017, from 2.50 in 2016. The most common household is made up of two people, with over 55% having just one or two people.

Single-person households

The largest growth has been in single-person households, which explains the change in consumer patterns, formats and distribution channels. In Spain there were 4,687,400 single-person households in 2017, representing a 1.1% increase from 2016 figures. By sex, single-person households of women grew by 1.0%, and those of men by 1.1%.

Single-person households of people under 65 years old can be further broken down as follows:

Single-person households of people aged 65 or more can be further broken down as follows:

Couple households

Spain saw the highest number of households consisting of couples in 2017, with 10.3 million households. Those couple households can be further broken down as follows:

If we include other types of households where, apart from the couple, there were also other members, then the figure for 2017 reaches 10.9 million households in which a couple was living. And if we include households with more than one couple, a total of 11.3 million of couples is reached.

Summary charts of household composition

Change in households over time
Year Number of households (Millions)
2000 13.931
2002 14.498
2003 14.956
2004 15.387
2005 15.828
2006 16.256
2007 16.709
2008 17.204
2009 17.585
2010 18.083
2011 18.407
2012 18.300
2013 18.407
2014 18.456
2015 18.556
2016 18.666
2017 18.807
Household composition in 2017
Description of this image follows.
Description of above image
Household composition Percentage of homes in 2017
One person 25.4%
Two people 30.4%
Three people 20.9%
Four people 17.6%
Five people or more 5.7%

Spain’s income and expenditures

In 2018, Spain’s savings ratio was 7.8% of disposable income. This is forecast to stay the same in 2019. Spanish consumer expenditure per capita was 15,517 euros in 2018. This is forecast to grow by 2.0% in 2019. Total consumer expenditures are forecast to grow at an average annual rate of 1.3%, and cumulatively by 14.9%, from 2019 to 2030; they are also forecast to represent 59.7% of Spain’s GDP in 2019.

Spanish disposable income per capita totalled 16,029 euros in 2018. This is forecast to grow by 1.9% in 2019. Total disposable income is forecast to grow at an average annual rate of 1.2%, and cumulative by 13.8%, from 2019 to 2030.

Summary of economic indicators
Indicator 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Inflation (% change) 2.4 1.4 − 0.2 −0.5 −0.2 2.0
Exchange rate (per US$) 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9
Lending rate 2.9 2.3 2.1 1.7 4.3 4.0
GDP (% real growth) −2.9 −1.7 1.4 3.6 3.2 3.0
GDP (national currency millions) 1,039,758.0 1,025,693.0 1,037,820.0 1,081,165.0 1,118,743.0 1,166,319.0
GDP (US$ millions) 1,335,976.5 1,361,848.6 1,376,910.8 1,199,084.2 1,237,499.5 1,314,461.4
Birth rate (per '000) 9.7 9.1 9.2 9.0 8.8 8.3
Death rate (per '000) 8.6 8.4 8.5 9.1 8.8 9.3
No. of households ('000) 18,300.9 18,407.8 18,456.9 18,556.0 18,666.2 18,807.7
Total exports (US$ millions) 286,225.4 313,592.9 321,959.3 282,330.0 287,212.7 316,594.3
Total imports (US$ millions) 325,844.0 334,048.9 351,264.5 304,314.6 303,641.8 348,761.9
Urban population ('000) 36,939.9 36,974.9 36,909.2 36,963.7 37,059.8 37,233.1
Urban population (%) 78.9 79.1 79.4 79.6 79.8 80.0
Population aged 0-14 (%) 15.1 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.1 15.1
Population aged 15-64 (%) 67.5 67.1 66.7 66.3 66.2 66.0
Population aged 65+ (%) 17.4 17.7 18.1 18.5 18.7 19.0
Male population (%) 49.3 49.3 49.2 49.1 49.1 49.1
Female population (%) 50.7 50.7 50.8 50.9 50.9 50.9
Life expectancy male (years) 79.5 80.2 80.4 80.1 80.5 80.7
Life expectancy female (years) 85.5 86.1 86.2 85.7 86.3 86.4
Infant mortality (deaths per '000 live births) 3.1 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.7
Adult literacy (%) 97.9 98.1 98.1 98.1 98.3 98.3
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