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Statistical Overview of the Canadian Ornamental Industry, 2018

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Overview

The ornamental horticulture sector includes the floriculture (primarily cut flowers and potted plants), nursery, Christmas tree, and turf sod industries. In 2018, the sector generated farm gate sales of $2.34 billion, including resales by producers. Due to changes in the Statistics Canada methodology for all 2016 surveys related to the nursery sectorFootnote 1, figures discussed in this report are not directly comparable to any information gathered in prior years.

Floriculture (greenhouse flowers and potted plants) remained the largest industry by revenue, accounting for 66.5% of total sales. Floriculture sales have been relatively stable over the last 5 years, totaling $1.56 billion in 2018. Ontario, British Columbia and Quebec accounted for the majority of Canada’s total floriculture sales, with Ontario contributing more than half of Canadian sales at 51.2%.

Nursery sales totaled $643.5 million in 2018, accounting for 27.5% of total ornamental sales. By province, Ontario accounted for 41.9% of total nursery sales in 2018, followed by British Columbia and Quebec with 31.5% and 13.4%, respectively.

While most floriculture production takes place within climate controlled greenhouses, most nursery production takes place outdoors. Both sub-sectors show an increase in average farm size and a decrease in the number of operations over time leading to fewer but larger and more productive operations. The nursery industry is typically more vertically integrated than the floriculture industry with a combination of retail sales, landscaping, installation and maintenance services forming part of the income mix for many producers.

Turf sod sales totaled $140.4 million in 2018, accounting for 6.0% of total ornamental sales. Ontario led the country in sod sales at 38.8% of the national total. While turf sod is widely used for public spaces, sports fields and similar large applications, the trend in total annual volume of turf sod sold tends to mirror that of new home construction.

Ornamental products are distributed through multiple channels. Mass-market chain stores are the primary distributers of floriculture products, accounting for 30.6% of total sales in 2018. However, landscape contractors and garden centres are the two largest distribution channels for nursery products, making up 26.1% and 17.7% of total sales, respectively.

In 2018, 26,423 people were directly employed in the production of ornamental products. 57.2% of these employees worked in specialized greenhouse flower and plant operations, 37.3% in nurseries, and 5.5% on sod farms. Due to the seasonal nature of the ornamental business, each of the sub-sectors employs more seasonal labour than permanent labour. Seasonal employees are defined as employees who work less than eight months during the year. 64.4% percent of greenhouse flower and plant production employees were seasonal workers, while 73.2% of sod workers and 69.1% of nursery workers fell into the seasonal category.

Canada’s largest ornamental trade partner continues to be the United States, accounting for 99.3% of exports and 47.8% of imports in the sector. Canadian worldwide exports totaled $543.0 million in 2018, and imports amounted to $547.3 million, resulting to a net negative trade balance of approximately $4.3 million, down $30.4 million from 2017.

1. Production

1.1. Number of Canadian ornamental farms[1] by sub-sector

2011 2016 Change
Floriculture[2] 3,016 2,403 −20.3%
Nursery[3] 3,438 2,780 −19.1%
Sod 375 265 −29.3%
Christmas trees 2,381 1,872 −21.4%
Total 9,210 7,320 −20.5%

Notes:

  1. Number of farms includes all farms reported to be growing floriculture, nursery, sod and Christmas trees, and not exclusively farms in which ornamental production represents 50% or more of total farm cash receipts.
  2. Greenhouse flowers. Note that in 2011, some respondents incorrectly reported "vegetable plants for sale" resulting in over-reporting of area in "Greenhouse flowers" and "Greenhouse vegetables".
  3. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 Census of Agriculture and are therefore not included. Prior censuses may have included their production in "total area of nursery products grown for sale".

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Agriculture. Tables 32-10-0419-01, 32-10-0420-01 and 32-10-0421-01

1.2. Area of Canadian ornamental farms by sub-sector (hectares)

2011 2016 Change
Floriculture 859 793 −7.7%
Nursery[1] 24,146 19,859 −17.8%
Sod 25,684 22,953 −10.6%
Christmas trees 28,315 23,787 −16.0%
Total 79,004 67,392 −14.7%

Note:

  1. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 Census of Agriculture and are therefore not included. Prior censuses may have included their production in "total area of nursery products grown for sale".

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Agriculture. Tables 32-10-0419-01, 32-10-0420-01 and 32-10-0421-01

1.3. Area per farm (average) of Canadian ornamental farms by sub-sector (hectares)

2011 2016 Change
Floriculture 0.28 0.33 15.8%
Nursery[1] 7.02 7.14 1.7%
Sod 68.49 86.62 26.5%
Christmas trees 11.89 12.71 6.9%
Total 8.58 9.21 7.3%

Note:

  1. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 Census of Agriculture and are therefore not included. Prior censuses may have included their production in "total area of nursery products grown for sale".

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Agriculture. Tables 32-10-0419-01, 32-10-0420-01 and 32-10-0421-01

1.4. Operations, area and months of operation for specialized greenhouse flowers and plants[1]

Total greenhouse operations (number) Total greenhouse area (square metres) Total months of operation (number)
2014 1,940 7,899,309 19,300
2015 1,872 7,996,415 17,147
2016 1,811 7,601,836 15,927
2017 1,703 7,353,127 14,855
2018 1,651 7,260,444 14,143

Note:

  1. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 survey. Prior surveys have included their production, affecting also greenhouse area, production, sales, labour and expenses variables.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0019-01 Estimates of specialized greenhouse operations, greenhouse area, and months of operation

1.5. Total area for production of specialized greenhouse flowers and plants by province (square metres)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Atlantic provinces 299,056 280,201 257,890 260,182 250,972
Quebec 1,233,623 1,220,000 1,213,584 1,181,037 1,178,262
Ontario 3,509,557 3,656,452 3,729,701 3,480,642 3,417,170
Prairie provinces 862,062 863,731 767,503 837,687 845,580
British Columbia 1,995,011 1,976,031 1,614,579 1,584,010 1,568,459
Canada 7,899,309 7,996,415 7,601,836 7,353,127 7,260,444

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0019-01 Estimates of specialized greenhouse operations, greenhouse area, and months of operation

1.6. Production of greenhouse flowers and plants by category (number in millions)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Bedding plants, ornamental 527.65 478.30 469.58 457.46 441.54
Cut flowers 317.65 314.37 306.31 291.34 296.32
Potted plants[1] 192.06 217.19 216.38 209.26 219.56
Cuttings 97.22 98.34 89.74 87.91 84.61
Total 1,134.58 1,108.20 1,082.02 1,045.98 1,042.04

Note:

  1. Includes indoor potted plants and outdor potted plants.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0246-01 Production and sale of greenhouse flowers and plants

1.7. Production of potted plants by variety (number in thousands)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Geraniums, outdoor 19,123 18,784 16,472 15,633 15,680
Tropical foliage and green plants 8,110 11,435 11,425 15,557 15,279
Fine herb plants, outdoor n/a n/a 10,698 12,561 12,321
Outdoor hanging pots 12,637 12,762 12,896 11,433 11,689
Vegetable plants, outdoor n/a n/a 7,227 9,714 10,399
Miniature roses, indoor 9,552 10,184 10,318 10,214 9,555
Kalanchoes, indoor 7,267 8,464 8,024 7,178 9,412
Chrysanthemums, indoor 7,905 7,457 6,335 6,037 8,406
Herbaceous flowering perennials, outdoor 10,979 11,692 8,130 7,960 8,323
Begonias, outdoor 6,288 6,880 6,708 6,135 6,088
Poinsettias, indoor 7,141 7,222 6,451 5,690 5,919
Petunias, outdoor 7,335 8,409 6,923 6,878 5,572
Gerberas, indoor 4,739 5,042 4,230 4,171 4,445
African violets, indoor 5,717 8,937 7,278 3,833 4,377
Hawker's balsams, outdoor 3,596 4,121 3,889 3,977 4,067
Orchids, indoor 2,797 3,137 2,115 3,036 3,170
Lilies, indoor 3,251 5,845 3,495 2,811 3,121
Chrysanthemums, outdoor 3,904 4,018 3,630 3,660 2,969
Calibrachoas, outdoor n/a n/a 2,624 2,373 2,310
Cyclamens, indoor 1,820 2,340 1,925 1,719 2,243
Tulips, indoor 1,862 2,321 2,090 2,158 2,216
Primulas, indoor 1,874 2,396 3,078 2,291 1,960
Pansies, outdoor n/a n/a 1,456 1,619 1,680
Indoor hanging pots 899 1,505 1,275 940 1,212
Dahlia, outdoor n/a n/a 983 974 901
Verbenas, outdoor n/a n/a 821 1,130 833
Azaleas, indoor 1,201 1,131 930 611 656
Zinnias, outdoor n/a n/a 345 305 254
Argyranthemum, outdoor 416 410 299 319 251
Rudbeckias, outdoor n/a n/a 147 190 180
Heliopsis, outdoor n/a n/a 67 42 48
Other indoor pots 17,337 17,962 15,597 13,241 15,281
Other outdoor pots 46,305 54,736 48,503 44,872 48,745
Total potted plants 192,055 217,189 216,382 209,260 219,561

Note:

  1. n/a : Not available for a specific reference period.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0021-01 Production of plants, flowers and tree seedlings

1.8. Production of cuttings by variety (number in thousands)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Geraniums, cuttings 10,999 13,651 14,095 12,318 11,316
Poinsettias, cuttings 3,885 4,494 5,424 5,159 5,046
Chrysanthemums, cuttings 4,708 3,926 3,897 4,115 4,001
Impatiens, cuttings 4,447 4,578 4,809 4,153 3,821
Other cuttings 73,183 71,692 61,519 62,164 60,429
Total cuttings 97,223 98,342 89,744 87,910 84,614

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0021-01 Production of plants, flowers and tree seedlings

1.9. Production of cut flowers[1] by variety (number in thousands)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Tulips, stems 117,567 120,021 111,177 119,132 124,903
Gerberas, stems 74,284 75,229 87,778 81,079 80,320
Chrysanthemums, stems 32,470 33,562 25,377 23,142 21,773
Snapdragons, stems 13,835 12,146 23,772 18,864 20,729
Lilies, stems 9,223 9,745 11,557 9,999 12,115
Alstroemerias, stems 10,732 12,250 8,964 7,491 5,756
Freesias, stems 4,592 4,576 5,821 5,979 4,746
Lisianthus, stems 2,456 5,499 5,793 5,440 4,017
Roses, stems 5,944 5,388 x 4,417 3,557
Daffodils, stems 6,618 4,061 3,746 2,623 2,760
Irises, stems 4,638 3,239 x 1,834 2,033
Other cut flowers 35,289 28,657 16,485 11,341 13,618
Total cut flowers 317,648 314,373 306,315 291,342 296,324

Notes:

  1. 1. Includes flowers grown, or given some cultural treatment, and sold.
  2. x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0021-01 Production of plants, flowers and tree seedlings

1.10. Total sod area by province (hectares)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Newfoundland and Labrador 233 276 x x 254
Prince Edward Island x x x x 70
Nova Scotia 1,085 1,142 999 975 965
New Brunswick 318 x 401 467 427
Quebec 4,711 5,129 4,821 4,237 4,035
Ontario 10,894 9,232 9,105 8,624 7,927
Manitoba x 1,182 780 749 786
Saskatchewan 614 654 613 564 622
Alberta 4,234 4,061 4,065 3,714 3,589
British Columbia 862 849 811 859 827
Canada 24,225 22,914 21,915 20,522 19,500

Note:

  1. x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0034-01 Estimates of sod area, sales and resales

1.11. Sod operations[1] by province (number)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Newfoundland and Labrador 20 20 20 23 21
Prince Edward Island 3 2 x 4 3
Nova Scotia 10 10 9 10 11
New Brunswick 9 9 x 9 10
Quebec 62 58 60 61 58
Ontario 80 65 65 65 65
Manitoba 10 10 10 10 11
Saskatchewan 10 9 9 8 9
Alberta 30 30 26 26 32
British Columbia 40 30 30 30 30
Canada 274 243 240 246 250

Notes:

  1. 1. Firms that only distribute sod or nursery stock, or just landscape and lay sod are excluded.
  2. x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0034-01 Estimates of sod area, sales and resales

1.12. Christmas tree production by province (number of farms)

2011 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 19 11
Prince Edward Island 20 18
Nova Scotia 447 319
New Brunswick 157 97
Quebec 379 343
Ontario 647 530
Manitoba 60 39
Saskatchewan 41 31
Alberta 105 83
British Columbia 506 401
Canada 2,381 1,872

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0421-01 Christmas trees

1.13. Christmas tree production by province (hectares)

2011 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 116 71
Prince Edward Island 140 134
Nova Scotia 7,663 6,179
New Brunswick 2,131 1,785
Quebec 8,347 8,255
Ontario 5,955 4,456
Manitoba 472 178
Saskatchewan 305 265
Alberta 565 449
British Columbia 2,621 2,016
Canada 28,315 23,787

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0421-01 Christmas trees

2. Sales and resales

2.1. Ornamental sales and resales by sub-sector (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Greenhouse flower and plants 1,443.0 1,506.0 1,510.2 1,503.9 1,556.7
Nursery[1] 747.2 759.5 670.5 659.5 643.5
Sod 162.4 157.0 146.8 147.3 140.4
Total 2,190.1 2,422.5 2,327.4 2,310.7 2,340.6

Note:

  1. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 survey. Prior surveys have included their production, affecting also nursery area, production, sales, labour and expenses variables.

Source: Statistics Canada. Tables 32-10-0023-01, 32-10-0032-01 and 32-10-0034-01

2.2. Greenhouse flower and plant sales by category (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Potted plants[1] 706.4 785.9 811.6 789.7 830.5
Bedding plants, ornamental 190.9 179.8 192.2 204.2 205.0
Cut flowers 150.1 146.6 140.1 127.8 133.3
Cuttings 51.6 49.9 44.2 44.8 44.2
Total 1,098.9 1,162.1 1,188.0 1,166.5 1,213.0

Note:

  1. Includes indoor potted plants and outdor potted plants.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0246-01 Production and sale of greenhouse flowers and plants

2.3. Greenhouse flower and plant sales and resales[1] by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Newfoundland and Labrador 9.2 8.1 x 8.7 8.6
Prince Edward Island 5.3 5.1 x 5.5 5.6
Nova Scotia 16.1 13.4 17.0 13.0 12.7
New Brunswick 34.6 37.9 x 44.3 45.2
Quebec 161.5 163.8 177.0 192.6 216.3
Ontario 757.6 795.4 790.5 774.9 797.5
Manitoba 34.4 F 33.6 33.4 35.2
Saskatchewan 17.2 16.0 13.2 10.9 12.1
Alberta 85.9 78.9 77.3 76.9 80.2
British Columbia 321.1 352.8 343.8 343.9 343.4
Canada 1,443.0 1,506.0 1,510.2 1,503.9 1,556.7

Notes:

  1. F: Too unreliable to be published.
  2. x: Supressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0023-01 Total value of greenhouse products

2.4. Greenhouse flower and plant sales and resales by province – percent share, 2018

Description of this image follows.
Description - Greenhouse flower and plant sales and resales by province – percent share
  • Ontario, 51%
  • British Columbia, 22%
  • Quebec, 14%
  • Alberta, 5%
  • New Brunswick, 3%
  • Others, 5%

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0023-01 Total value of greenhouse products

2.5. Nursery stock[1] sales and resales by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Newfoundland and Labrador 0.6 x x x 0.8
Prince Edward Island 2.0 x x x 0.9
Nova Scotia 10.6 12.1 10.6 10.5 10.7
New Brunswick 4.7 5.6 3.5 3.2 3.3
Quebec 101.8 106.0 89.4 87.7 86.1
Ontario 309.1 312.3 303.6 290.4 269.9
Manitoba 15.2 14.8 15.2 14.4 15.5
Saskatchewan 7.1 8.1 5.1 6.2 5.2
Alberta 57.9 55.6 47.0 47.2 48.4
British Columbia 238.2 243.0 194.3 198.1 202.6
Canada 747.2 759.5 670.5 659.5 643.5

Notes:

  1. 1. The term "nursery stock" covers a diverse range of non-edible, living plant material grown in field or in containers and sold with its root system intact. Nursery stock includes annual and perennial plants ranging from woody plants (for example, trees, shrubs and rose bushes) to bedding plants and potted outdoor flowers. "Nursery stock" excludes Christmas trees and various inputs such as growing medium (for example, peat moss and top soil), fertilizer and pesticides.
  2. x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0032-01 Nursery stock sales and resales

2.6. Nursery stock sales and resales by province – percentage share, 2018

Description of this image follows.
Description - Nursery stock sales and resales by province – percent share
  • Ontario, 42%
  • British Columbia, 31%
  • Quebec, 13%
  • Alberta, 8%
  • Others, 6%

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0032-01 Nursery stock sales and resales

2.7. Nursery stock resales by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Newfoundland and Labrador x x 0.3 0.5 x
Prince Edward Island x x x 0.0 x
Nova Scotia 2.1 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.9
New Brunswick F 1.0 1.0 1.0 x
Quebec 16.0 15.0 16.5 17.1 15.2
Ontario 71.4 72.3 81.3 72.1 72.0
Manitoba 2.0 2.6 2.2 1.8 1.5
Saskatchewan 1.8 2.3 1.8 2.5 1.8
Alberta 7.3 9.5 8.8 7.4 8.8
British Columbia 31.4 29.2 27.1 28.4 29.0
Canada[1] 133.3 133.5 139.9 131.6 131.0

Notes:

  1. 1. Data may not add up as some data was suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements.
  2. F: Too unreliable to be published.
  3. x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0032-01 Nursery stock sales and resales

2.8. Sod sales and resales[1] by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Newfoundland and Labrador n/a n/a 2.5 x 2.7
Prince Edward Island n/a n/a x x 0.6
Nova Scotia n/a n/a 3.5 4.1 3.9
New Brunswick n/a n/a x 3.0 2.7
Quebec n/a n/a 31.8 29.7 29.3
Ontario n/a n/a 56.9 59.1 54.5
Manitoba n/a n/a 4.6 4.3 4.1
Saskatchewan n/a n/a 4.4 3.9 4.3
Alberta n/a n/a 28.6 27.8 26.6
British Columbia n/a n/a 11.4 12.0 11.5
Canada n/a n/a 146.8 147.3 140.4

Notes:

  1. 1. Data may not add up as some data was suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements.
  2. x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.
  3. n/a: Not available for a specific reference period.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0034-01 Estimates of sod area, sales and resales

3. Channels of distribution

3.1. Channels of distribution for flowers and plant sales and resales (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Mass market chain stores 446.9 451.8 476.1 488.7 476.9
Domestic wholesalers 269.3 289.6 278.8 283.1 305.9
Direct sales to the public[1] 221.6 215.7 224.1 201.4 220.2
Retail florists 184.4 191.4 171.1 165.7 182.9
Other greenhouses 137.1 167.8 161.2 175.2 160.6
Exported 118.5 123.2 144.4 141.9 159.6
Government and public agencies 20.4 20.2 13.1 11.6 12.2
Other channels 44.7 46.4 41.3 36.2 38.5
Total sales[2] 1,443.0 1,506.0 1,510.2 1,503.9 1,556.7

Notes:

  1. Includes roadside stands and owner-operated retail outlets.
  2. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 survey. Prior surveys have included their production, affecting also greenhouse area, production, sales, labour and expenses variables.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0022-01 Channels of distribution for horticulture product sales and resales

3.2. Channels of distribution for flowers and plant sales and resales, 2013–2017

Description of this image follows.
Description - Channels of distribution for flower and plant sales and resales

Description of this image may be found in the preceding section 3.1.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0022-01 Channels of distribution for horticulture product sales and resales

3.3. Channels of distribution for nursery product sales and resales (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Landscape contractors 173.4 171.2 177.1 182.4 168.2
Garden centres 140.3 141.1 130.8 122.3 114.1
Mass market chain stores 112.1 123.8 107.8 100.7 103.5
Direct sales to the public[1] 81.3 79.0 75.1 89.4 92.3
Other growers 66.0 69.6 79.4 75.2 73.8
Exported 17.8 29.6 22.2 25.7 28.7
Government and public agencies 53.0 54.9 31.2 23.9 22.4
Fruit growers 34.3 34.4 22.9 20.2 19.7
Other channels 68.9 55.8 24.0 19.9 20.7
Total sales[2] 747.2 759.5 670.5 659.5 643.5

Notes:

  1. Includes roadside stands and owner-operated retail outlets.
  2. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 survey. Prior surveys have included their production, affecting also greenhouse area, production, sales, labour and expenses variables.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0033-01 Channels of distribution for nursery product sales and resales

3.4. Channels of distribution for nursery product sales and resales, 2014–2018

Description of this image follows.
Description - Channels of distribution for flower and plant sales and resales

Description of this image may be found in the preceding section 3.3.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0033-01 Channels of distribution for nursery product sales and resales

4. Operating expenses

4.1. Greenhouse flower and plant[1] producers' operating expenses by category (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Gross yearly payroll[2] 338.7 339.7 322.6 294.7 291.4
Plant material purchases for growing on[3] 211.1 221.2 216.0 219.9 213.4
Plant material purchases for resale[3] 135.0 127.5 114.4 113.2 112.0
Fuel 66.0 61.5 55.3 54.2 57.7
Electricity[4] 26.9 27.7 28.9 25.8 26.0
Other crop expenses[5] 107.7 124.4 141.2 156.8 151.8
Other operating expenses[6] 215.4 211.8 208.5 183.2 178.7
Total operating expenses[7] 1,100.8 1,113.7 1,086.8 1,047.9 1,031.0

Notes:

  1. This category excludes mixed operations (vegetables, flowers, and plants).
  2. Includes seasonal and permanent labour.
  3. Includes value of flowers, plants, cuttings, seedlings, seeds and bulbs purchased (before sales tax).
  4. Electricity expenses include electricity for lighting, airflow fans, and heating.
  5. Includes fertilizer, pesticides, pollination, irrigation, containers, packaging, bioprograms, and growing mediums such as soil, peat moss, vermiculite, perlite, sand, Styrofoam and sawdust.
  6. Includes interest, land taxes, insurance, advertising, repairs to farm buildings, machinery, agricultural equipmentand vehicles, contract work, and telephone and telecommunications services.
  7. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 survey. Prior surveys have included their production, affecting also greenhouse area, production, sales, labour and expenses variables.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0025-01 Specialized greenhouse producers' operating expenses

4.2. Greenhouse flower and plant producers' operating expenses by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Atlantic provinces 53.8 55.0 52.0 54.6 54.9
Quebec 124.1 114.1 119.0 115.8 115.7
Ontario 566.5 597.8 614.7 606.4 591.8
Prairie provinces 108.3 94.9 79.3 81.4 88.5
British Columbia 248.0 251.8 221.7 190.6 180.1
Canada 1,100.8 1,113.7 1,086.8 1,047.9 1,031.0

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0025-01 Specialized greenhouse producers' operating expenses

4.3. Nursery operating expenses by category (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Gross yearly payroll[1] 235.7 233.8 201.6 197.2 189.8
Plant material purchases for growing on[2] 92.1 91.3 96.4 97.2 95.9
Plant material purchases for resale[2] 87.9 90.0 98.4 94.3 92.7
Electricity expenses n/a n/a 5.7 4.6 5.1
Other crop expenses[3] n/a n/a 60.5 62.2 64.3
Other operating expenses[4] 236.4 227.6 115.5 110.1 113.4
Total Operating Expenses 652.1 642.7 578.2 565.6 561.2

Notes:

  1. 1. Includes seasonal and permanent labour.
  2. 2. Includes value of trees, nursery stock, bedding plants, seedlings, cuttings or bulbs purchased before sales tax.
  3. 3. Includes fertilizer, pesticides, pollination, irrigation, containers, packaging, bioprograms and growing mediums such as soil, peat moss, vermiculite, perlite, sand, Styrofoam and sawdust.
  4. 4. Includes interest, land taxes, insurance, advertising, repairs to farm buildings, machinery, agricultural equipment and vehicles, contract work, telephone and telecommunications services.
  5. n/a: Not available for a specific reference period.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0454-01 Nursery and sod producers' operating expenses

4.4. Nursery operating expenses by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Newfoundland and Labrador 0.6 0.5 x x 0.8
Prince Edward Island 1.5 1.3 x x 0.9
Nova Scotia 10.1 11.1 10.2 10.2 10.7
New Brunswick 4.7 5.5 3.5 3.4 3.0
Quebec 91.3 95.6 78.3 78.2 75.5
Ontario 275.9 268.5 272.6 257.8 250.2
Manitoba 13.2 13.8 13.0 12.7 13.1
Saskatchewan 6.4 6.4 4.1 4.8 4.6
Alberta 51.1 50.4 41.5 42.1 40.5
British Columbia 197.3 189.7 153.4 154.7 162.1
Canada 652.1 642.7 578.2 565.6 561.2

Note:

  1. x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0454-01 Nursery and sod producers' operating expenses

4.5. Sod operating expenses by category (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Gross yearly payroll[1] 47.3 45.6 40.8 38.9 37.4
Sod purchases for resale 2.6 1.8 1.4 2.7 2.5
Other operating expenses[2] 84.2 78.3 75.1 71.7 65.8
Total operating expenses[3] 134.1 125.6 117.4 113.3 105.7

Notes:

  1. Includes seasonal and permanent labour.
  2. Includes fertilizer, pesticides, land taxes, interest, insurance, advertising, repairs, fuel, electricity, irrigation expenses, and telephone and other telecommunication services.
  3. Data may not add up as some data was suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0454-01 Nursery and sod producers' operating expenses

4.6. Sod operating expenses by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Newfoundland and Labrador 2.1 2.4 2.0 x 2.0
Prince Edward Island x x x x 0.4
Nova Scotia 4.8 x 3.8 3.9 4.0
New Brunswick x 1.1 x 2.5 2.2
Quebec 27.4 26.9 24.5 23.7 22.1
Ontario 62.3 51.0 46.4 45.0 41.8
Manitoba 4.2 4.6 3.0 2.9 2.8
Saskatchewan 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.2 3.3
Alberta 19.5 21.6 22.0 18.8 17.2
British Columbia 8.4 9.8 9.9 10.5 9.9
Canada[1] 134.1 125.6 117.4 113.3 105.7

Notes:

  1. 1. Data may not add up as some data was suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements.
  2. x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada. Table 32-10-0454-01 Nursery and sod producers' operating expenses

5. Labour

5.1. Nursery, sod and greenhouse flowers total employees

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Nursery Seasonal employees[1] 9,841 9,643 7,896 7,184 6,806
Permanent employees[2] 4,046 3,862 3,560 3,331 3,048
Total employees 13,887 13,505 11,456 10,515 9,854
Sod Seasonal employees[1] 1,287 1,225 1,117 1,140 1,072
Permanent employees[2] 509 480 461 428 392
Total employees 1,796 1,705 1,578 1,568 1,464
Specialized greenhouse flowers and plants Seasonal employees[1] 12,315 11,867 10,893 10,195 9,725
Permanent employees[2] 6,796 6,627 6,288 5,691 5,380
Total employees 19,111 18,494 17,181 15,886 15,105

Notes:

  1. Seasonal employees who worked less than 8 months during the year.
  2. Permanent employees who worked more than 8 months during the year.

Source: Statistics Canada. Tables 32-10-0026-01 and 32-10-0028-01

5.2. Total employees by sector, 2014–2018

Description of this image follows.
Description - Total employees by sector

Description of this image may be found in the preceding section 5.1.

Source: Statistics Canada. Tables 32-10-0026-01 and 32-10-0028-01

6. Trade

6.1. Canadian ornamental trade balance by category (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Bulbs, tubers, tuberous roots, etc. Exports 18,069 19,662 22,195 22,050 21,959
Imports 51,250 52,589 54,525 53,370 55,895
Trade balance −33,181 −32,928 −32,329 −31,320 −33,936
Other live plants, including their roots, cuttings and slips, etc. Exports 246,122 300,877 321,483 339,499 363,530
Imports 204,963 231,393 241,080 262,371 275,824
Trade balance 41,158 69,484 80,403 77,128 87,706
Cut flowers and flower buds for bouquets or ornamental purposes, etc. Exports 51,054 62,653 75,413 76,140 80,067
Imports 156,332 168,054 165,028 172,869 170,320
Trade balance −105,278 −105,401 −89,615 −96,729 −90,254
Foliage, branches and other parts of plants, etc.[1] Exports 51,179 54,954 57,945 63,034 77,428
Imports 33,339 36,909 37,766 42,464 45,220
Trade balance 17,840 18,044 20,179 20,570 32,208
Total Exports 366,424 438,145 477,037 500,722 542,983
Imports 445,884 488,945 498,399 531,074 547,259
Overall trade balance −79,460 −50,801 −21,362 −30,351 −4,277

Note:

  1. Includes Christmas trees.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2019)

6.2. Exports

6.2.1. Canadian floriculture and nursery exports[1] by province (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Newfoundland and Labrador 0 0 0 1 7
Prince Edward Island 2,564 3,222 3,667 3,776 4,318
Nova Scotia 16,007 20,472 18,387 18,645 17,670
New Brunswick 32,515 28,895 31,614 30,331 34,374
Quebec 28,405 37,627 39,640 44,837 54,557
Ontario 204,000 249,566 275,071 289,460 312,372
Manitoba 925 1,288 1,361 1,274 1,305
Saskatchewan 49 68 62 134 92
Alberta 189 279 328 163 219
British Columbia 81,770 96,724 106,907 112,102 118,068
Canada[2] 366,424 438,145 477,037 500,722 542,983

Notes:

  1. Includes Christmas trees.
  2. Canada total derived from the sum of available provincial data.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2019)

6.2.2. Floriculture and nursery exports by province, 2014–2018

Description of this image follows.
Description - Floriculture and nursery exports by province
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Ontario 204,000 249,566 275,071 289,460 312,372
British Columbia 81,770 96,724 106,907 112,102 118,068
Quebec 28,405 37,627 39,640 44,837 54,557
New Brunswick 32,515 28,895 31,614 30,331 34,374
Nova Scotia 16,007 20,472 18,387 18,645 17,670

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2019)

6.2.3. Floriculture and nursery exports by province – percent share, 2018

Description of this image follows.
Description - Floriculture and nursery exports by province – percent share
  • Ontario, 58%
  • British Columbia, 22%
  • Quebec, 10%
  • New Brunswick, 6%
  • Nova Scotia, 3%
  • Others, 1%

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2019)

6.2.4. Canada's top ten floriculture and nursery[1] export destinations (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
United States 361,859 431,542 472,923 496,826 539,350
Panama 1,417 3,343 1,738 1,901 1,683
Curaçao 301 241 416 430 286
Bermuda 257 219 265 244 265
Aruba 146 136 218 226 255
Mexico 32 34 115 0 144
Japan 19 253 205 140 141
Denmark 0 0 0 0 96
Barbados 84 100 99 108 94
United Arab Emirates 23 52 148 87 93
Others 2,286 2,225 910 759 577
Total 366,424 438,145 477,037 500,722 542,983

Note:

  1. Includes Christmas trees.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2019)

6.2.5. Christmas tree exports by province[1] (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Prince Edward Island 15 18 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 6,002 8,628 7,208 7,072 6,701
New Brunswick 8,522 7,903 7,894 7,297 11,233
Quebec 17,751 24,373 27,426 34,157 43,848
Ontario 228 473 474 863 649
Manitoba 0 0 0 0 9
Saskatchewan 41 21 34 9 24
British Columbia 18 22 53 9 686
Canada 32,576 41,438 43,090 49,406 63,150

Note:

  1. Newfoundland and Labrador and Alberta did not export Christmas trees during the five-year range presented in this table.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2019)

6.2.6. Christmas tree exports by province[1] (number)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Prince Edward Island 550 590 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 375,160 365,095 353,586 317,438 280,512
New Brunswick 267,255 266,669 298,425 250,557 314,687
Québec 865,279 1,061,691 1,265,217 1,666,198 1,624,998
Ontario 13,904 21,699 23,491 34,486 25,040
Manitoba 0 0 0 0 851
Saskatchewan 4,334 1,665 2,412 695 1,425
British Columbia 2,965 2,326 9,358 713 25,597
Canada 1,529,447 1,719,735 1,952,489 2,270,087 2,273,110

Note:

  1. Newfoundland and Labrador and Alberta did not export Christmas trees during the five-year range presented in this table.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2019)

6.2.7. Christmas tree exports by province, 2014–2018

Description of this image follows.
Description - Christmas tree exports by province
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Quebec 17,751 24,373 27,426 34,157 43,848
New Brunswick 8,522 7,903 7,894 7,297 11,233
Nova Scotia 6,002 8,628 7,208 7,072 6,701
British Columbia 18 22 53 9 686
Ontario 228 473 474 863 649

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2019)

6.2.8. Christmas tree exports by province – percentage share, 2018

Description of this image follows.
Description - Christmas tree exports by province – percentage share
  • Quebec, 69%
  • New Brunswick, 18%
  • Nova Scotia, 11%
  • Others, 2%

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2019)

6.2.9. Canada's top ten Christmas tree destinations (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
United States 29,822 36,666 39,662 46,043 60,224
Panama 1,417 3,343 1,738 1,901 1,683
Curaçao 301 241 416 430 286
Aruba 146 136 218 226 255
Bermuda 257 219 264 242 243
United Arab Emirates 23 52 148 87 93
Barbados 57 79 82 88 74
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) 73 60 82 53 57
Bahamas 45 33 22 34 55
Cayman Islands 27 29 29 73 52
Others 409 580 429 227 128
Total 32,576 41,438 43,090 49,406 63,150

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, August 2019)

6.2.10. Canada's top ten Christmas tree destinations (number)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
United States 1,477,761 1,634,249 1,866,218 2,206,996 2,203,756
Panama 22,971 53,283 51,133 32,057 35,690
Curaçao 6,838 4,407 7,680 7,856 5,975
Bermuda 5,375 4,921 5,466 6,321 5,708
Aruba 2,243 2,270 4,189 3,963 4,676
United Arab Emirates 360 1,364 3,921 1,906 2,220
Barbados 1,123 1,482 1,620 1,745 1,935
Cayman Islands 653 660 1,022 1,624 1,419
Bahamas 895 766 333 955 1,216
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) 1,734 924 1,572 1,148 872
Others 9,494 15,409 9,335 5,516 2,861
Total 1,529,447 1,719,735 1,952,489 2,270,087 2,266,328

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, August 2019)

6.2.11. Canada's floriculture and nursery[1] export destinations by U.S. state (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
New York 45,220 51,935 59,799 64,505 68,115
Washington, state 28,619 33,702 40,375 43,009 44,095
Florida 22,746 33,916 31,400 30,236 36,013
Michigan 19,819 28,058 28,805 30,244 32,657
Massachusetts 28,603 31,170 33,102 32,827 31,770
California 16,870 18,565 25,362 28,609 30,610
Illinois 20,700 24,360 23,019 25,588 29,520
Pennsylvania 19,803 22,269 22,471 20,632 26,729
Maine 20,154 23,486 24,252 24,838 25,338
Ohio 14,051 16,302 17,790 21,844 22,691
Other U.S. States 125,275 147,779 166,546 174,495 191,802
Total, United States 361,859 431,542 472,923 496,826 539,341

Note:

  1. Includes Christmas trees.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, August 2019)

6.3. Imports

6.3.1. Floriculture and nursery[1] imports by province (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Newfoundland and Labrador 137 117 101 106 129
Prince Edward Island 7 6 10 4 0
Nova Scotia 1,229 1,302 1,459 1,627 1,839
New Brunswick 6,123 6,280 6,215 7,314 8,405
Quebec 58,213 61,321 66,070 64,910 59,996
Ontario 231,555 254,559 262,907 289,971 306,083
Manitoba 35,596 33,809 32,159 27,662 30,331
Saskatchewan 2,540 5,764 5,877 2,947 4,201
Alberta 7,355 7,222 7,687 15,307 11,238
British Columbia 103,129 118,565 115,915 121,226 125,035
Canada 445,884 488,945 498,399 531,074 547,258

Note:

  1. Includes Christmas trees.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, August 2019)

6.3.2. Top ten sources of Canada's floriculture and nursery[1] imports (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
United States 206,689 227,716 230,182 251,838 261,500
Colombia 91,996 98,089 103,526 111,072 111,380
Netherlands 52,201 53,640 55,923 58,827 61,718
Ecuador 41,942 45,503 39,015 37,764 36,525
Mexico 6,082 7,391 8,495 8,719 10,594
Taiwan 4,510 6,606 6,780 6,660 8,280
Guatemala 3,568 4,119 5,726 6,289 7,522
Costa Rica 6,056 7,092 6,197 5,458 5,548
Israel 4,878 4,896 4,581 5,624 5,409
India 2,173 3,317 3,473 3,851 4,164
Others 25,789 30,577 34,500 34,972 34,619
Total 445,884 488,945 498,399 531,074 547,258

Note:

  1. Includes Christmas trees.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, August 2019)

7. World data

7.1. Top ten exporting countries for floriculture, nursery, and Christmas trees (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Netherlands 12,162,476 11,844,251 12,851,550 13,198,359 14,135,998
Colombia 1,527,707 1,665,208 1,758,789 1,846,648 1,913,830
Germany 1,235,920 1,195,246 1,344,479 1,335,156 1,468,109
Italy 988,773 973,549 1,113,879 1,212,402 1,367,968
Ecuador 885,859 1,048,778 1,071,972 1,159,629 1,110,364
Belgium 994,081 754,075 799,354 783,256 917,653
Kenya 697,890 684,999 750,210 787,804 815,550
Denmark 667,243 593,382 633,217 642,251 643,143
Spain 440,963 400,736 476,963 530,577 625,139
United States 466,089 523,056 566,164 583,930 595,165
Others[1] 4,104,771 4,447,329 4,765,264 4,927,859 5,255,125
Total 24,171,773 24,130,608 26,131,839 27,007,872 28,848,045

Note:

  1. In 2018, Canada ranked 11th globally with exports totaling $549,090 thousands.

Source: Global Trade Tracker (August 2019)

7.2. Top ten importing countries for floriculture, nursery, and Christmas trees (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Germany 3,898,897 3,747,037 4,082,219 4,103,897 4,391,935
Netherlands 2,469,744 2,963,053 3,166,446 3,275,447 3,491,756
United States 2,176,195 2,559,786 2,874,627 2,969,817 3,146,608
United Kingdom 2,034,611 2,084,464 2,128,309 2,013,124 2,078,718
France 1,457,999 1,416,869 1,544,027 1,579,549 1,695,946
Italy 731,781 758,776 795,777 824,419 793,542
Japan 666,928 709,944 773,311 758,318 786,886
Russian Federation 938,647 917,371 766,489 739,964 774,508
Switzerland 704,681 692,001 733,054 730,484 769,641
Belgium 752,283 504,559 589,458 569,031 656,055
Others[1] 5,984,907 6,321,389 6,822,445 7,460,260 8,257,675
Total 21,816,674 22,675,250 24,276,162 25,024,310 26,843,268

Note:

  1. In 2018, Canada ranked 14th globally with imports totaling $547,250 thousands.

Source: Global Trade Tracker (August 2019)

8. Key Resources

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