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The hydrologic cycle (Video)

Video Transcript

(Fade up from black.)

(A maple leaf flies across the screen and lands to the left. A photo of wheat plots fades into the background. Small circles appear containing images relevant to agriculture. The Canada wordmark and the departmental signature fade in. The title of the video appears on screen.)

(No background music for length of video.)

Text on screen: The Hydrologic Cycle

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(An aerial view of an area containing both land and water. Light clouds dot the sky.)

Female narrator: The movement of water within the Earth and its atmosphere is called the hydrologic cycle, or more commonly, the water cycle.

(The camera drops out of the sky and tilts upwards to focus on an area that contains plains, mountains, a distant lake, a river, and a bordering ocean. The light clouds remain in the sky.)

Text on screen: The Water Cycle

(An oval graphic fades up over the image of the landscape. Two arrows travel around the oval to give the impression of an endless cycle. Words begin to fade up within the oval.)

We use the word cycle because water is constantly in motion, there is no beginning or end.

Text on screen: Hydrologic Cycle; Evaporation, Transpiration, Condensation, Precipitation, Surface Runoff, Infiltration, Groundwater Recharge, Discharge

Water moves on the Earth's surface, underneath the earth, and of course in the atmosphere above the Earth.

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(A dark, stormy picture of a lake during a heavy rainstorm fades in. A graphic indicating the nature of precipitation fades in over the picture. The precipitation graphic fades out and is replaced by two new graphics indicating the nature of infiltration and surface runoff. The graphics for infiltration and surface runoff fade out. The are replaced by two new graphics indicating the nature of transpiration and evaporation.)

Throughout this cycle, water is also changing from one phase to another; from solid to liquid to gas.

(The graphics for transpiration and evaporation fade out. They are replaced by three new graphics indicating the nature of groundwater recharge, condensation, and discharge.)

To study these transformations and how they take place is to study the process of the hydrologic cycle itself.

(The graphics for groundwater recharge, condensation, and discharge fade out. The weather in the photo of the lake begins to change. We can see the sun come out momentarily before more rain moves in.)

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(The landscape image and oval graphic from earlier fade back in. The arrows in the graphic are no longer moving.)

The water cycle can start at any point in the process…

(The camera zooms through the oval graphic to focus on the lake in the background. The graphic zooms until it is off screen.)

…but we will start with the movement of water from the earth's surface into the atmosphere.

(A stylized sun appears in the upper right corner of the frame. Its rays are beating down on the lake water. Stylized water droplets begin to fade in over the lake water. They move upwards to indicate evaporation from the lake. A graphic indicating the nature of evaporation fades up.)

Evaporation and transpiration are the two processes that convert liquid water to water vapor.

Text on screen: Water vapour, liquid water, evaporation.

(The stylized water droplets fade out. A light arrow fades in to indicate water evaporating from the lake and entering the atmosphere as water vapour. The word 'ocean' fades in over the water in the photo.)

About 90% of the water returning to the air comes from evaporation off the surfaces of oceans…

Text on screen: Water vapour, liquid water, evaporation, ocean.

(The shot changes to show how evaporation would happen for a lake. We can see the same stylized sun and sunrays, and the same graphic indicating evaporation. The word 'lake' appears over the water in the photo.)

…lakes…

Text on screen: Water vapour, liquid water, evaporation, lake.

(The shot changes to show how evaporation would happen for a river. We can see the same stylized sun and sunrays, and the same graphic indicating evaporation. The word 'river' appears over the water in the photo.)

…and rivers.

Text on screen: Water vapour, liquid water, evaporation, river.

(The shot changes to a picture of a landscape without a waterbody. The same stylized sun and sunrays appear in the upper right corner of the frame. A graphic indicating evaporation fades up over the photo.)

Evaporation of water can also occur from the surface of the earth.

Text on screen: Evaporation, soil.

(The shot changes to a close-up of a branch of a plant. Three arrows appear to indicate the flow of water within the plant. A graphic indicating transpiration fades up over the photo.)

Much of the remaining water vapor comes from transpiration…

(The shot zooms in even closer to the plant leaves. The underside of the leaves are highlighted on screen. Small, white dots appear on the underside of the leaves. Several blue arrows appear to indicate that water evaporates from the surface of the leaves.)

…or the release of water vapor from plants. Tiny pores located on the undersides of leaves release water vapor from the plants into the atmosphere.

Text on screen: Water Evaporates from Leaf Surface

(The shot changes to show a snowy scene with mountains in the background. The same stylized sun and sunrays appear, but this time in the upper left corner of the frame. A graphic indicating the nature of sublimation fades up over the picture.)

Finally, a small percentage of water vapor enters the atmosphere through a process called sublimation. Sublimation is the transformation of solid water that is ice or snow directly into a gas.

Text on screen: Water vapour, snow or ice, sublimation.

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(A picture of a landscape with two small bodies of water fades in. Clouds begin to fade in and move through the sky area of the photo. A graphic indicating the nature of condensation fades in on screen.)

Once in the air, the water vapor can form clouds through a process called condensation.

(The shot changes to an aerial view of the same landscape with the two small bodies of water. Clouds are still moving through the sky. The condensation graphic is still visible on screen.)

Condensation is the conversion of the water vapor into liquid water.

(The shot changes again to show a ground view of a landscape. No bodies of water are visible in this picture. There are still clouds in the sky. The condensation graphic remains visible on screen.)

This process occurs because as the water vapor rises higher and higher into the air it gets cooler and cooler, until finally it forms into water droplets.

(The condensation graphic fades out.)

Any drop in temperature or air pressure begins the next step in the water cycle, precipitation.

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(A snowy, aerial view of a town fades up. The sky is grey and there is snow falling. A graphic indicating the nature of precipitation fades up.)

Precipitation is really just any water falling back to the earth.

(The shot changes to a ground level view of a street within the town. There are homes on either side of the street. The sky remains grey and there is still snow falling.)

Snow, sleet, and hail are a few forms of precipitation…

(The shot changes to show a cattle pasture. When it fades in, the picture shows a clear sky and no precipitation. As the narration continues, the sky darkens, and rain begins to fall. The precipitation graphic fades back in.)

…although the majority of precipitation worldwide falls in the form of rain.

Text on screen: Precipitation

(The sound of heavy rain and thunder is heard in the background.)

(The precipitation graphic fades out. It continues to rain on the cattle pasture.)

If precipitation falls on land…

(A blue arrow that follows the curvature of the land fades in. A graphic indicating the nature of surface runoff also fades in.)

…some of it will move along the surface. Surface runoff is simply precipitation that does not soak into the ground.

(The shot changes to an aerial view of a landscape containing bodies of water. We can see an ocean, a stream, a river, and a lake. It is still raining in the shot.)

Text on screen: Ocean, stream, river, lake

Surface runoff is responsible for supplying streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and oceans with water.

(The shot changes to show the side of a steep slope. It is still raining in the shot.)

The amount of surface runoff depends on factors such as temperature…

Text on screen: Climate (T°)

…slope of the land…

Text on screen: Slope

(The shot changes to show the same steep slope but from a different angle. It is still raining in the shot. The words 'no vegetation' appear in the bottom left corner of the screen.)

Text on screen: No Vegetation

…soil characteristics…

Text on screen: Soil Type

(The shot changes to show a cross-section of the landscape. Vegetation covers the ground. It is still raining in the shot.)

Text on screen: Vegetation, water soaks in, instead of running down

…and the amount of vegetation present.

(The shot changes to show a ground level view of a frozen tundra. As the narration continues, the snow starts to melt on the tundra.)

Text on screen: Snowmelt

For instance, if precipitation falls in the form of snow it will remain frozen until spring.

(Blue lines fade in to indicate the surface runoff. White arrows originating in the snow pack start to travel down the blue lines to show how melting snow can't be absorbed into still frozen soil.)

If in the spring, all the snow melts quickly then the still frozen soil will not be able to absorb it all.

(The shot changes to a view of a farm at the foot of snow-capped mountains. There is a dugout at the bottom of the screen that is being filled up by runoff from melting snow.)

Text on screen: Farm dugout filled by snowmelt runoff

Therefore, there will be water flowing over the surface, known as runoff.

(The shot changes to show a tree-covered landscape. There is a steep slope at the foot of the trees. It is raining in the shot. A light blue graphic indicating water begins to run down the slope. The water graphic goes down the first slope, crosses a road, goes down a second slope, and then merges with a water body.)

Text on screen: Steep Slope

Similarly, steep slopes allow precipitation to runoff very quickly as gravity is pulling the water down the slope faster than it can seep in.

(The camera now shows the sleep slope from a distance and has the body of water in the foreground.)

Runoff from steep slopes can be seen not only during spring but even in summer months.

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(A shot of a small farm fades in. It is raining in the shot.)

If conditions are right, some precipitation may soak into the ground instead of running off.

(The camera zooms on the farm.)

Topography, soil characteristics and surface vegetation are just a few things which will affect the amount of water entering the ground.

(A white, dotted line appears on screen across the ground. The ground on the viewer side of the line pulls back to reveal a cross-section of the soil layers underground.)

Thus, infiltration is the process by which water leaves the ground surface and enters the soil.

(Water begins to seep into the ground from the surface. A graphic indicating the nature of infiltration fades in on screen.)

Text on screen: Infiltration

(The camera cuts to show a wider view of the cross-section of the ground. Water continues to seep into the ground. In this wider view we can now see the water table and a layer of bedrock.)

That water continues to move down through the soil and into underlying sand, gravel and bedrock until it reaches groundwater stores.

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(A cross-section of the ground, similar to those seen earlier, fades up. The small farm can still be seen in the background. A graphic indicating the vadose zone fades up.)

Text on screen: Vadose Zone

The upper layer of soil is collectively called the vadose zone. This is the area where soil and air still mix, meaning it is not saturated with water.

(The camera pans downwards to show more of the soil layers. A white arrow appears between the ground surface and the top of the water table.)

Text on screen: Water table

The vadose zone extends from the top of the ground surface to the top of the water table.

(A white, dotted line fades in to indicate the top of the water table. The arrow fades out.)

The water table is an imaginary line underground below which all spaces or openings between soil and rock particles are filled with water.

(Water begins to seep into the ground from the ground surface. The white line marking the top of the water tables moves upwards to indicate the raising of the water table.)

Text on screen: Saturated Zone, Water Table

The water table rises and falls according to the season and the amount of rain and snowmelt that has occurred during a particular year.

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(A cross section of the ground fades in. The same white, dotted line as before fades in to mark the top of the water table. A white arrow fades in to indicate that the area below the water table, but above the layer of bedrock, is the saturated zone.)

Text on screen: Saturated Zone, Water Table

The beginning of the saturated zone, or the top of the water table…

(The white line, white arrow, and text all fade out. The area marked as the saturated zone is now highlighted and marked as an aquifer.)

…is the upper level of an aquifer.

(A three-dimensional box appears within the aquifer. Slowly, the area inside the box zooms in to give us a better look at the inside of an aquifer.)

Text on screen: Core extraction

Contrary to popular belief, an aquifer is very rarely an underground river.

(The ground around the extracted core sample fades out. The core sample now appears isolated on a light background.)

Text on screen: Sand & Gravel Aquifer

(Another three-dimensional box appears on the core sample. This new box zooms us in even further.)

Text on screen: Substrate Zoom

Aquifers typically consist of large deposits of sand, gravel, silt or clay…

(We now see an extremely close view of the substrate in an aquifer. All the spaces in the substrate slowly turn blue as they fill with water.)

Text on screen: Water, sand, gravel

…the open spaces of which are entirely filled with water.

(The core samples now return to their original places. We now find ourselves back at the original picture of the cross-section of the ground. An arrow appears over the aquifer and is pointing upwards.)

Text on screen: Unconfined aquifer

Aquifers are either confined, or unconfined.

(Water begins to seep into the ground from the surface. A graphic indicating the nature of infiltration appears on screen.)

Text on screen: Infiltration

The unconfined aquifer shown here is open to direct infiltration and percolation from above.

(The arrow and the infiltration graphic fade out. A white, dotted line indicating the top of the water table fades in. This line moves upwards to indicate a fluctuating water table.)

Text on screen: Water Table

The top of this aquifer is the water table.

(The shot zooms back out to show the cross-section of the ground with the small farm in the background. It is still raining in the shot.)

As precipitation increases…

(A series of labels for each ground layer now appear on screen. The dotted line marking the top of the aquifer moves upwards to indicate a fluctuating water table.)

Text on screen: Unconfined Aquifer, Impermeable Layer, Water Table, Confined Aquifer

…the water table in an unconfined aquifer can continue to rise.

(The camera changes angles and zooms in slightly to the cross-section of the ground. The labels that appeared in the last shot now return.)

Text on screen: Unconfined aquifer, Impermeable Layer (Rock), Impermeable Layer (Clay), Water Table, Confined Aquifer

The confined aquifer shown below has a layer of solid rock or clay material which is impermeable, or in other words, in which water has a very difficult time moving through. This confining layer constrains the upper surface of the confined aquifer and can cause the water in the aquifer to become pressurized.

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(The same cross-section of the ground from earlier fades up on screen. Water begins to seep into the ground from the surface. A graphic indicating the nature of groundwater recharge fades up.)

Text on screen: Groundwater Recharge

Water enters, or recharges, an aquifer as it soaks into the ground.

(The camera pulls back and pans to the right to show a wide view of the cross-section of the ground. It zooms in again where the cross-section cuts through the mountains. Two white circle appear to indicate where the aquifer recharge areas are found.)

Text on screen: Recharge Area (x2), unconfined aquifer, confined aquifer

The area on the surface where water soaks in is called a recharge area. The recharge area for an aquifer can be located quite close to the aquifer or at some distance away.

(The shot changes to a different cross-section of the ground. We can see the ground surface, the water table, the unconfined aquifer, the impermeable layer, and the confined aquifer. It is raining in the shot. White arrows appear to show how rain seeps into the ground to recharge aquifers.)

Text on screen: Ground surface, water table, unconfined aquifer

There are several ways that groundwater might be recharged by rain. Rain soaks in where it falls and recharges the water table aquifer.

(The shot changes back to the cross-section of the ground near the mountains. We can see the ground surface, the water table, the unconfined aquifer, the impermeable layer, and the confined aquifer on screen. Arrows appear above the recharge area for the confined aquifer to show how rainwater moves into deep layers to recharge the confined aquifer.)

Rain soaks in where it falls and then moves into deep layers to recharge a confined aquifer.

(The shot changes back to a simple cross-section of the ground. In this cross-section we can see a stream on the surface. We can also see the ground surface, the streambed, the water table, the impermeable layer, and the confined aquifer. Arrows appear to show how water from the stream seeps into the ground to recharge the unconfined aquifer.)

Text on screen: Ground Surface, Streambed, Water Table, Water Table Aquifer, Groundwater Flow, Impermeable Layer

And finally, as water flows through streams it can sometimes enter an area that allows water to soak in, and seep down to recharge the aquifer below.

(The shot changes to a wide view of the cross-section of the ground. White lines appear to delineate the confined aquifer. A white dotted line appears to indicate the pressure gradient for the area.)

Text on screen: Confined Aquifer, Pressure Gradient

Let's talk again about confined aquifers and remember that the water in this type of aquifer is under pressure.

(A black line appears to indicate the placement of an artesian well. White arrows show how the water flows through the confined aquifer and up through the well.)

Text on screen: Artesian Well, Pressure Gradient, Confined Aquifer

If a well goes through the confining layer it is known as an artesian well. The pressure in the confined aquifer causes the water in an artesian well to rise up to the level of the water table.

(Another black line appears to indicate a different placement for the artesian well. In this case, the well cap is below the pressure gradient. White arrows show how the water flows through the confined aquifer and up through the well.)

Text on screen: Artesian Well, Pressure Gradient, Confined Aquifer, Flowing Artesian Well

Sometimes, if the water rises above the ground level, the well overflows and is called a flowing artesian well.

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(A cross-section of the ground, similar to those seen earlier, fades up. A graphic indicating the nature of discharge fades up.)

Text on screen: Discharge

Groundwater flows underground until it reaches a discharge zone…

(The shot changes to a closer view of the cross-section of the ground. The camera pans to the left until we can see the water table coming into contact with a streambed.)

Text on screen: Stream

…an area where the water is above the land surface.

(The camera continues to pan to the left until it reaches a point where the water table rises up to the ground level. A white arrow appears to show how water exits the water table through a spring.)

Text on screen: Spring

A spring is an area where the groundwater breaks the surface of the land. Springs are clearly visible discharge zones.

(The shot cross-fades to a cross-section of wetlands. An arrow appears to show how the water table recharges wetlands.)

Text on screen: Wetlands

Less obvious is the groundwater seeping into wetlands or contributing to stream flows.

(The camera pans left again until it reaches a point where a nearby lake interrupts the water table. White arrows appear to show how the lake is recharged by both the confined and unconfined aquifers.)

Text on screen: Lake

Discharge is just another portion of the water cycle, where groundwater naturally transforms into surface water.

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(A cross-section of the ground fades up. After being full screen momentarily, the images of the cross-section moves to the bottom half of the screen. Above the cross-section image we can now see an image of a well cap on a small farm. This image rotates out and is replaced by an image of livestock at pasture. This image rotates out and is replaced by an image of an irrigation system in a wheat field.)

Let's stay underground for just a bit longer. Many people use aquifers as a water source for drinking, livestock watering and agricultural production.

(A graphic indicating the nature of groundwater movement fades up.)

Text on screen: Groundwater Movement

Therefore, it is important to learn more about groundwater and its movement.

(The image above the image of the cross-section rotates back to the well cap on the small farm.)

Text on screen: Well

For example, the water that comes out of a well is probably fairly old.

(The image of the well cap on a small farm remains in place. The cross-section of the ground, underneath the well cap image, shifts to the left. Another cross-section of the ground slides in on the right. The two cross-section images show us that it takes a long time for water entering an aquifer to find its way out again.)

Text on screen: Year 2068

Groundwater moves very slowly. So slowly, in fact, that for most aquifers it takes decades before a drop of water that enters the aquifer actually makes its way out.

(The shot changes to a cross-section of a landscape featuring a stream. We can see the ground surface, the stream, the unconfined aquifer, the impermeable layer, and the confined aquifer. A series of text and arrows shows us how long water will remain in the hydrologic cycle. As the water goes deeper into the earth, its stay in the hydrologic cycle gets longer.)

Text on screen: Weeks, days, months, years, decades, centuries, millennia, Residence Time

This time spent in the aquifer is called residence time. Residence time varies enormously. Water may spend as little as days or weeks underground or as much as 10,000 or more years!

(The shot changes to a close-up of water seeping into the ground from above. The camera travels downwards with the water to give the impression that we are seeping into the earth as well.)

Residence times of tens, hundreds or even thousands of years are not unusual.

(The camera zooms into some of the particles we see on screen as part of an aquifer. It is showing us extremely close-up views of the minerals that dissolve into ground water.)

Text on screen: Manganese, Iron

The more time water takes to reach and remain in an aquifer, the more minerals like calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese are dissolved into that water.

(An image containing a cross-section of a vadose zone and a saturated zone fades up. The vadose and saturated zones are clearly marked. There is another label titled 'dissolved minerals' on the left side of the screen. There is a small box attached to this label via a small white line. As the box moves through the soil layers, the numerical value in the box changes to show the changing quantities of minerals in the soil.)

Text on screen: Dissolved Minerals, Vadose Zone, Saturated Zone

The actual quantity of dissolved minerals will also depend greatly on the type of rocks and soil that make up the aquifer.

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(Cut to a ground level image of a landscape. A car speeds by in the background. A graphic indicating the nature of contaminants fades up on screen.)

(The sound of a car engine is heard as the car speeds through the background.)

Text on screen: Contaminants

Of course, it is not only natural elements that dissolve into and move within an aquifer.

(The camera zooms out to show the cross-section of the ground underneath the landscape. Six squares fade up on screen, over the image of the landscape. Inside each square we can see representations of the different types of contaminants and how they can get into the water table.)

Although groundwater is naturally filtered as it flows through an aquifer, it is not always free from contamination. Many activities around our homes and in our communities have the potential to contaminate groundwater.

(Cut through a series of shots showing an overturned transport truck. The camera spins around the truck then focuses on the tank it was hauling.)

Because groundwater is always moving, it often spreads the effects of dumps and spills far beyond the site of the original contamination.

(The ground underneath the truck drops out to show a cross-section of the ground. This image is shown in infrared. We can see how the contaminant from the truck has seeped down and accessed the aquifer.)

Text on screen: Contamination detected: Positive, Contaminant source: Chemical spill, Distance to water source: 26ft, Incident Report, Contaminant, 26ft, Aquifer

Groundwater contamination is extremely difficult and sometime impossible to clean up.

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(Two images of cross-sections of the ground under a farming operation fade up on screen. The screen is divided in half, between the two shots. On the left side we see an underground fuel tank in the cross-section. On the right side we see a tractor spraying pesticides above ground.)

Text on screen: Point Sources, Non-point Sources

Groundwater contaminants come from two categories of sources: point sources and non-point sources.

(The image of the fuel tank underground now takes up the full screen. Labels fade up on screen to identify the fuel tank, the water table, and the groundwater flow.)

Text on screen: Underground Fuel Tank, Point Sources, Water Table, Groundwater Flow

Landfills, leaking gasoline storage tanks, leaking septic tanks and accidental spills are examples of point sources.

(The underground fuel tank begins to leach an orange liquid into the soil. As the orange liquid enters the aquifer, it travels off screen, in the direction of the groundwater flow.)

Underground fuel tanks are of particular concern as they are prone to leaks which often go un-noticed for extended periods of time. Fuels can seep into an aquifer and create a contamination plume that is very difficult to remediate.

(The shot changes to the tractor applying pesticides at ground level. Labels indicating the water table and the groundwater flow fade up on screen.)

Text on screen: Non-point sources, Water Table, Groundwater Flow

Infiltration from farmland treated with pesticides and fertilizers is an example of non-point sources.

(An orange contaminate begins to leak into the ground. The liquid separates and forms two words; Phosphorus and Nitrogen. The phosphorus fades out and becomes part of the upper layer of soil.)

Text on screen: Phosphorus, Nitrogen

Phosphorous from fertilizers typically binds to soils in the upper layers of the vadose zone and is usually of little concern.

(The nitrogen seeps down into the water table and is carried away in the direction of groundwater flow.)

However, nitrogen binds very strongly to water and can infiltrate through soils into the aquifer. Nitrates and nitrites in drinking water must be closely monitored as they can be extremely harmful for infants and toddlers. Pesticides are also a concern for drinking water, and their use should be watched closely.

(A green contaminate begins to leak into the ground. The contaminate forms the word 'Atrazine'. Like nitrogen, the atrazine seeps down into the water table then is carried off in the direction of groundwater flow.)

Text on screen: Atrazine

Many newer pesticides become immobile when they reach the surface of the ground, but some, like Atrazine for instance, are now being discovered in groundwater supplies.

(The shot changes to a cross-section of the ground in front of a small farm. A label identifying the confining bedrock layer appears on screen. A black line indicating a well also fades up. A green liquid moving through the unconfined aquifer shows us how contaminants can gain access to the hydrologic cycle.)

Text on screen: Confining Layer, Well, Confined Aquifer Contamination

It is true that confined aquifers offer some protection from surface contamination but even in these types of aquifers contamination is still possible.

(The green liquid moves up the well pipe to the small farm, and down through fissures in the rocks into the confined aquifer.)

Cracks or fissures in the confining layer can allow contamination to enter the aquifer.

(Another black line fades in to indicate an artesian well.)

Text on screen: Drilling for Well

Even a more direct path for contamination is when we drill a well into a confined aquifer.

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(A cross-section of the ground in front of a small farm fades in. A cartoon truck appears on screen and begins to drill a well. It drills until it reaches the unconfined aquifer.)

If constructed properly, drilling a well into an aquifer can provide safe and clean water. But if a well is not constructed or maintained properly, it can be a source of contamination for the entire aquifer.

(Another truck appears on screen. It pours grout between the well casing and the hole, and then drives off screen. The original truck then removes the drill from the ground and drives off screen.)

Text on screen: Grout

When a well is drilled, grout is poured between the well casing and the hole to prevent surface contamination from traveling down directly into the well.

(A third truck drives into the frame. It pours additional grout around the top of the well to seal it off, and then drives off screen. As the narration continues, the different parts of the well come together to form a completed well.)

If this grout is not mixed, poured, or cured properly, it may crack prematurely and let contamination pass.

(The well cap is lowered into place.)

Equally important is the well cap that sits on top of the well casing.

(The shot changes to a cross-section of the ground in front of a small farm. We can see a well cap at ground level. A square appears on the right of the screen to show a close-up of an improperly secured well cap. A rat climbs in and descends into the well.)

Text on screen: Well Cap

If this is not properly sealed with a gasket, or if the bolts are removed, animals, soil, and water can enter the casing and drop directly into the well.

(Cut to a cross-section of the ground. We can see the remains of an open well. There is a cartoon person discarding unwanted materials into the well. An orange contaminant begins to leak out of the bottom of the well and into the water table.)

Text on screen: Abandoned Open Well

In some cases, people have even been caught purposefully discarding items down a well. This is not at all acceptable. If a well is no longer being used, it must be properly decommissioned.

(The cartoon person fades out. The open well is slowly filled with a material to permanently seal off the site.)

Text on screen: Decommissioned Well

This involves permanently sealing the entire well so that contamination cannot enter the aquifer at that site.

(fade to black.)

(fade up from black.)

(A cross-section of a landscape fades up. The oval graphic from the beginning fades in over the landscape. The two arrows are now moving around the oval again to reinforce the fact that water is in a constant cycle. Text begins to fade in.)

Text on screen: Hydrologic Cycle, Precipitation, Surface Runoff, Infiltration, Groundwater Recharge, Discharge, Evaporation, Transpiration, Condensation

Remember, water is constantly in motion on, above, and within the Earth.

(The oval graphic fades out. We can see three graphics on screen representing evaporation, condensation and precipitation. The camera begins to zoom in so these graphics fade off screen. Three new graphics come into view representing groundwater recharge, infiltration, and surface runoff come into view. The camera continues to zoom and these graphics go off screen. Two new graphics representing discharge and groundwater movement appear on screen. The camera continues to zoom and these graphics go off screen. Three new graphics representing the vadose zone, contaminates, and wells appear on screen. The camera continues to zoom in to reveal the cross-section of the ground in front of the small farm. The removed section of ground now re-enters the picture to reform the land.)

Text on screen: Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation, Groundwater Recharge, Infiltration, Surface Runoff, Discharge, Groundwater Movement, Vadose Zone, Contaminates, Wells.

Anything that enters a body of water, whether it is above ground or below, eventually comes into contact with other people, animals, and plants. The hydrologic cycle is much more complex than you may have once thought.

(The camera zooms into the small farm.)

(The shot changes to show a large, flowing stream.)

(The sound of a flowing stream can be heard in the background.)

Perhaps the next time you take a sip of water, stop and think about where it might have been before it made its way into your glass.

(The shot changes to show a residential neighborhood.)

(The shot changes to show a rural farming operation.)

(The shot changes back to the landscape shot from the very beginning of the video. The camera starts to zoom out and tilt down; the exact inverse of the motion the camera took at the beginning of the video.)

We can all do our part to help protect our groundwater and ensure its safety for years and years to come.

(Fade up from white.)

(Three circles containing images moving quickly towards the camera. Once full screen they slip off to the upper left and off screen. A grey ribbon moves in behind the circles as they become full screen. The circles line up, zoom out, and center themselves in the middle of the screen. The Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada departmental signature appears below the circles.)

Text on screen: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada.

(Cross-fade to the Canada with an animated Canadian flag over the last letter in the word.)

(Fade to black.)

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