Rethinking biological control programs as planned invasions
© 2018 Biological control of pests with their natural enemies essentially consists of planned invasions, with the opportunity to select both the invader and the invaded environment. Recent advances in invasion science link ‘intrinsic invasion factors’ (life history and behavioral traits) with invader success; connect ‘extrinsic invasion factors’ (abiotic and biotic aspects of the invaded environment) with environmental invasibility; and demonstrate that their interaction leads not only to ecologically driven variability but also to rapid evolutionary change in biocontrol systems. However, current theory and empirical evidence from invasion science have not yet been extensively adopted into biological control research and practice.
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