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Effect of cultivar and environment on end-use quality of Canadian winter wheat

Humphreys G, Zi Y, Graf R, Kalikililo A, Langille L, Dion Y, Fregeau-Reid J (2016) Effect of cultivar and environment on end-use quality of Canadian winter wheat. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Meeting, Nov. 6-9, 2016, Phoenix, AZ, USA. P332-907.

Abstract

Wheat is a staple food crop for almost half the world's population, and one of the main sources of minerals and protein in many developing countries. Thus, wheat plays a crucial role in food security and human health. The effect of the environment on the quality of wheat produced including winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is of significant interest to the entire wheat value chain including breeders, producers, grain handlers, millers, and bakers. In this study, 25 Canadian winter wheat varieties were grown in three locations in across Canada [Beloeil(QC); Ottawa(ON) and Lethbridge (AB)] using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Flour yield, whole grain protein content, flour protein content, grain hardness (PSI) and dough strength [gluten peak maximum time (PMT) and gluten torque maximum (TM)], were measured. Highly significant differences were detected among environments and cultivars for each of the quality variables (P<0.01). In Lethbridge, the test weight, kernel weight and FPC were significantly lower than Ottawa and Beloeil, and the GPC and TM were significantly higher than the other locations. In Ottawa, falling numbers were significantly higher than Beloeil, but not significantly higher than Lethbridge. PMT in Beloeil was significantly higher than Lethbridge but not significantly higher than Ottawa. Flour yield was affected by both location and grain hardness. Among hard wheat entries, the highest flour yields were detected at Beloeil; while for soft wheat entries, the highest flour yields were observed for samples from Ottawa. Test weight, grain hardness (PSI) and grain protein content were significantly correlated with flour yield and TM (P<0.05). Varieties with superior soft and hard wheat quality were identified.

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