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Salt stress (NaCl) affects plant growth and branch pathways of carotenoid and flavonoid biosyntheses in Solanum nigrum

Ben Abdallah, S., Aung, B., Amyot, L., Lalin, I., Lachâal, M., Karray-Bouraoui, N., Hannoufa, A. (2016). Salt stress (NaCl) affects plant growth and branch pathways of carotenoid and flavonoid biosyntheses in Solanum nigrum, 38(3), 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11738-016-2096-8

Abstract

© 2016, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków. In this study, we set out to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on carotenoid and flavonoid production by the black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.). The study was carried out under green chamber conditions using seedlings subjected to 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl for 3 weeks. The negative effect of NaCl on dry biomass production of roots and leaves were accompanied by a significant restriction in K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ion uptake and by an increase in Na+ ion concentrations, the effects of which were most pronounced at the highest NaCl level. Salt stress also induced oxidative stress, according to the amplified levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and relative ion leakage ratio. Expression of some related carotenoid (phytoene synthase 2 and β-lycopene cyclase) and flavonoids genes (phenylalanine ammonialyase, chalcone synthase and flavonol synthase) were induced by NaCl, followed enhanced production of β-carotene, lutein, and quercetin 3-β-d-glucoside. At the highest NaCl level (150 mM NaCl), quercetin 3-β-d-glucoside synthesis came at the expense of reduced β-carotene and lutein, while salt stress treatment affected leaf antioxidant activities to a great extent relative to the control. Our data suggest that the potential antioxidant properties of carotenoids and flavonoids and their related key genes may be efficiently involved in the restriction of salt-induced oxidative damages.

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