Corrigendum to "Change in carbon footprint of canola production in the Canadian Prairies from 1986 to 2006" [Renew Energy 63 (2014) 634-641].
Shrestha, B.M, Desjardins, R.L., McConkey, B.G., Worth, D.E., Dyer, J.A., and Cerkowniak, D.D. (2014). "Corrigendum to "Change in carbon footprint of canola production in the Canadian Prairies from 1986 to 2006" [Renew Energy 63 (2014) 634-641].", Renewable Energy, 68, pp. 906.
Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives are mycotoxins that can cause oestrogenic effects and impair the reproductive physiology of animals, especially in female swine. Strategies to reduce or eliminate ZEA contamination in foods and feeds are very much needed. Among 36 bacterial isolates obtained from a variety of animal intestinal chyme, mouldy foods and feeds, soils, etc., five isolates demonstrated the ability to reduce more than 50% of ZEA in a liquid medium; ANSB01G isolate taken from normal broiler intestinal chyme reduced ZEA the most, by 88.65%. Using physiological, biochemical, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis methods, the ANSB01G isolate was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Under simulated intestinal tract conditions, the ANSB01G B. subtilis isolate degraded 84.58, 66.34 and 83.04% of ZEA in naturally contaminated maize, dried distillers’ grains with solubles, and swine complete feed, respectively. The highest degradation of ZEA occurred when the mycotoxin was co-incubated with the whole bacterial culture, resulting in a reduction of 88.65%, followed by 75.60% using culture supernatant, 26.11% using cell extracts, and 15.06% using viable cells. Treatments consisting of both heating and addition of proteinase K significantly reduced the rate of ZEA degradation in the culture supernatant, indicating that the ZEA degradation might be enzymatic. B. subtilis ANSB01G displayed resistance to simulated gastrointestinal tract environments and antimicrobial activities against several common bacterial pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. These properties of B. subtilis ANSB01G suggest the possibility of its potential to effectively degrade ZEA in feed and to develop functional feed products for livestock industries.
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