Covalent attachment of fenugreek gum to soy whey protein isolate through natural Maillard reaction for improved emulsion stability.
Kasran, M., Cui, S.W., and Goff, D.H. (2013). "Covalent attachment of fenugreek gum to soy whey protein isolate through natural Maillard reaction for improved emulsion stability.", Food Hydrocolloids, 30(2), pp. 552-558. doi : 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.08.004 Access to full text
Soy whey protein isolate (SWPI)-fenugreek gum (hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed) conjugates were prepared by Maillard-type reaction in a controlled dry state condition (60 °C, 75% relative humidity for 3 days) to improve emulsification properties. Fenugreek gum was partially hydrolyzed using 0.05 M HCl at 90 °C for 10 min (HD10), 30 min (HD30) and 50 min (HD50) to examine if molecular weight had an effect on the emulsifying properties. The formation of SWPI-fenugreek gum conjugates was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Measurements of particle size distribution and average particle size have shown that conjugation of SWPI-fenugreek gum at 60 °C for 3 days was enough to produce relatively small droplet sizes in oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. A ratio of 1:3 and 1:5 of SWPI:fenugreek gum was more effective in stabilizing emulsion compared to 1:1 ratio. Unhydrolyzed fenugreek gum conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties compared to partially hydrolyzed fenugreek gum conjugates. The order of the conjugates in lowering the particle size of emulsions was as follows: SWPI-unhydrolzed fenugreek gum > SWPI-HD10 > SWPI-HD30 > SWPI-HD50.
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