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Molecular speciation and transformation of soil legacy phosphorus with and without long-Term phosphorus fertilization: Insights from bulk and microprobe spectroscopy

Liu, J., Yang, J., Cade-Menun, B.J., Hu, Y., Li, J., Peng, C., Ma, Y. (2017). Molecular speciation and transformation of soil legacy phosphorus with and without long-Term phosphorus fertilization: Insights from bulk and microprobe spectroscopy, 7(1), http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13498-7

Abstract

© 2017 The Author(s). Soil legacy phosphorus (P) represents a substantial secondary P resource to postpone the global P crisis. To fully utilize this P reserve, the transformation of legacy P speciation in a black soil with and without P fertilization for 27 years was investigated by chemical fractionation, molecular-level bulk (P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge, XANES; solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance) and microprobe (μ-X-ray fluorescence and μ-XANES) spectroscopy. Results from both fractionation and P bulk-XANES concordantly indicated that Ca2-P [Ca(H2PO4)2] acts as a reserve of labile P in response to soils with or without P fertilization. Cropping for 27 years depleted hydroxyapatite while enriched iron-bound P in soils irrespective of P application. Similar accumulation of soil organic P (Po), probably due to root residue inputs, occurred in both soils with and without P fertilization; the accumulated Po was present as orthophosphate diesters in soils with P fertilization more than in soils without P fertilization, suggesting that the release of labile Po was triggered by soil P deficits. These results provide vital information for agronomically and environmentally sustainable P management by demonstrating the potential crop availability of legacy soil P, which could reduce future P fertilization.

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