Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to fungicide resistance and implications for sampling
Van Der Heyden, H., Dutilleul, P., Brodeur, L., Carisse, O. (2014). Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to fungicide resistance and implications for sampling, 104(6), 604-613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-03-13-0085-R
Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to fungicide resistance was studied for Botrytis cinerea populations in vineyards and for B. squamosa populations in onion fields. Heterogeneity in this distribution was characterized by performing geostatistical analyses based on semivariograms and through the fitting of discrete probability distributions. Two SNPs known to be responsible for boscalid resistance (H272R and H272Y), both located on the B subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase gene, and one SNP known to be responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S) were chosen for B. cinerea in grape. For B. squamosa in onion, one SNP responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S homologous) was chosen. One onion field was sampled in 2009 and another one was sampled in 2010 for B. squamosa, and two vineyards were sampled in 2011 for B. cinerea, for a total of four sampled sites. Cluster sampling was carried on a 10-by-10 grid, each of the 100 nodes being the center of a 10-by-10-m quadrat. In each quadrat, 10 samples were collected and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or allele specific PCR. Mean SNP incidence varied from 16 to 68%, with an overall mean incidence of 43%. In the geostatistical analyses, omnidirectional variograms showed spatial autocorrelation characterized by ranges of 21 to 1 m. Various levels of anisotropy were detected, however, with variograms computed in four directions (at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° from the within-row direction used as reference), indicating that spatial autocorrelation was prevalent or characterized by a longer range in one direction. For all eight data sets, the β-binomial distribution was found to fit the data better than the binomial distribution. This indicates local aggregation of fungicide resistance among sampling units, as supported by estimates of the parameter θ of the β-binomial distribution of 0.09 to 0.23 (overall median value = 0.20). On the basis of the observed spatial distribution patterns of SNP incidence, sampling curves were computed for different levels of reliability, emphasizing the importance of sample size for the detection of mutation incidence below the risk threshold for control failure.
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