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Review of parasitoid wasps and flies (Hymenoptera, Diptera) associated with Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) in North America, with a key to genera.

Gates, M.W., Lill, J.T., Kula, R.R., O'Hara, J.E., Wahl, D.B., Smith, D.R., Whitfield, J.B., Murphy, S.M., and Stoepler, T.M. (2012). "Review of parasitoid wasps and flies (Hymenoptera, Diptera) associated with Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) in North America, with a key to genera.", Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 114(1), pp. 24-110. doi : 10.4289/0013-8797.114.1.24  Access to full text

Abstract

Hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) from North America are reviewed and an illustrated key to 17 genera is presented. Limacodid surveys and rearing were conducted by the Lill lab (JTL, SMM, TMS) during the summer months of 2004–2009 as part of their investigations on the ecology and natural history of Limacodidae. Parasitoid rearing involved a combination of collecting naturally occurring larvae in the field (~ 15 host species) and placing out large numbers of ‘sentinal’ larvae derived from lab colonies of three host species. Genera (genera not recorded in the Lill study but included in the key follow in [ ]) of the families Chalcididae ([1]; Chalcidoidea), Eulophidae (3 [1]; Chalcidoidea), Pteromalidae ([1]; Chalcidoidea), Trichogrammatidae (1; Chalcidoidea), Braconidae (3 [1]; Ichneumonoidea), Ichneumonidae (3; Ichneumonoidea), Ceraphronidae (1; Ceraphronoidea), Trigonalidae (2; Trigonaloidea), and Tachinidae (3; Diptera) were recovered as primary or secondary parasitoids of Limacodidae as part of this study. These records are augmented with previously published host-parasitoid relationships for Limacodidae in North America North of Mexico. The male of Platyplectrus americana is redescribed and the female is newly described. Incidental and miscellaneous host associations are discussed. A new combination is proposed for Trirhaphis eupoeyiae (from Rogas).

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