Plant extracts containing cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and capsicum oleoresin added to feedlot cattle diets: Ruminal environment, short term intake pattern and animal performance
Geraci, J.I., Garciarena, A.D., Gagliostro, G.A., Beauchemin, K.A., Colombatto, D. (2012). Plant extracts containing cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and capsicum oleoresin added to feedlot cattle diets: Ruminal environment, short term intake pattern and animal performance, 176(1-4), 123-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2012.07.015
The objective was to evaluate effects of adding a blend of essential oil compounds on ruminal fermentation and animal performance of feedlot cattle in comparison to sodium monensin. In Exp. 1, 24 angus steers (initial weight 141±6.6kg) were blocked by weight into 4 groups and randomly allocated to 8 pens of 3 steers. Treatments were monensin (46.7mg/kg dietary dry matter (DM)), or plant extracts (PE; 266mg/steer/d of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol+133mg/steer/d of capsicum oleoresin) added to a mineral mixture. The experiment lasted 84d and was divided in 2 periods of 0-44 and 45-84d. Diets were fed once daily and consisted of a corn grain based concentrate fed ad libitum, plus 200g alfalfa hay/steer/d as fed. The DM intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and rate of backfat deposition (BFD) were determined throughout the study. Short term intake patterns were evaluated by visual appraisal. In Exp. 2, two ruminally fistulated steers were used in a crossover design to determine how the ruminal fermentation variables pH, NH 3-N and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were affected by PE or monensin. Compared to monensin, PE did not alter overall DM intake (0.124kg/BW 0.75 versus 0.123kg/BW 0.75), FCR (0.21 versus 0.20), BFD (1.87mm/mo versus 1.76mm/mo), or longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) area (6.56cm 2/mo versus 6.69cm 2/mo) for PE and monensin, respectively. However, a treatment×period interaction occurred (P=0.02) for ADG, with steers fed PE having a higher (P=0.01) ADG in the second period (1.43kg/d versus 1.23kg/d for PE and monensin, respectively). Short term intake patterns were not altered by PE compared to monensin, as steers visited the feeders a similar number of times and the length of each visit was also similar (11.5min versus 10.6min and 8.28min versus 9.57min for PE and monensin, respectively). Although ruminal pH was not affected (5.55 versus 6.05 for PE and monensin, respectively), ruminal NH 3-N was lowered by PE (10.78mg/dl versus 20.05mg/dl, P=0.02). Ruminal total VFA concentrations did not differ between treatments (80.7mM versus 62.5mM), and feeding PE did not alter ruminal acetate (48.5mol/100mol versus 58.2mol/100mol), or propionate (32.8mol/100mol versus 25.2mol/100mol, P=0.65) proportions. Results show that steers fed PE performed equivalently to those fed monensin in a high concentrate diet, and that some productive variables were improved with PE feeding. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
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