Characterization and genetic analysis of bovine αs1-casein i variant.
Lühken, G., Caroli, A.M., Ibeagha-Awemu, E.M., and Erhardt, G. (2009). "Characterization and genetic analysis of bovine αs1-casein i variant.", Animal Genetics, 40(4), pp. 479-485. doi : 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2009.01861.x Access to full text
The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic origin underlying the I variant of αs1-casein and to develop a DNA-based test for this polymorphism as a tool for genetic analyses independent of milk sample testing. All coding exons and flanking regions of the αs1-casein gene were sequenced in DNA samples from cattle of known αs1-casein genotypes (BI, CI, II, CC), determined by isoelectric focusing of milk samples. A nucleotide substitution (A>T) in exon 11 (g.19836A>T) leads to the exchange of Glu with Asp at amino acid position 84 of the mature protein (p.Glu84Asp) and perfectly co-segregated with the presence of the αs1-casein I variant in the milk of the analysed animals. Genotyping of a total of 680 DNA samples from 31 Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds and from Bos grunniens, Bison bison and Bison bonasus by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed the occurrence of Asp at position 84 at low frequencies in Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds and established its origin from the αs1-casein C variant (p.Glu192Gly). Ten different intragenic haplotypes in the gene region from intron 8 to intron 12 were observed by sequencing, of which two occurred in Bison bison and one in Bison bonasus only. Using available casein gene complex information, an association of Asp at position 84 to β-casein A2 and κ-casein B was shown in the Bos indicus breed Banyo Gudali. Taken together, we can postulate that the αs1-casein variant I is caused by a non-synonymous nucleotide substitution in exon 11 of the gene and that it originated within Bos indicus and spread to Bos taurus
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