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Identification of novel α-gliadin genes

Qi, P.F., Wei, Y.M., Chen, Q., Ouellet, T., Ai, J., Chen, G.Y., Li, W., Zheng, Y.L. (2011). Identification of novel α-gliadin genes, 54(3), 244-252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/G10-114

Abstract

Ten novel -gliadin genes (Gli-ta, Gli-turg1, Gli-turg2, Gli-turg3, Gli-turg4, Gli-turg5, Gli-turg6, Gli-cs1, Gli-cs2, and Gli-cs3) with unique characteristics were isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), among which Gli-cs1, Gli-cs2, Gli-cs3, and Gli-turg6 were pseudogenes. Gli-cs3 and nine other sequences were much larger and smaller, respectively, than the typical -gliadins. This variation was caused by insertion or deletion of the unique domain I and a polyglutamine region, possibly the result of illegitimate recombination. Consequently, Gli-cs3 contained 10 cysteine residues, whereas there were 2 cysteine residues only in the other nine sequences. Gli-ta/Gli-ta-like -gliadin genes are normally expressed during the development of seeds. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that in-vitro-expressed Gli-ta could form intermolecular disulphide bonds and could be chain extenders. A protein band similar in size to Gli-ta has been observed in seed extracts, and mass spectrometry results confirm that the band contains small molecular mass -gliadins, which is a characteristic of the novel -gliadins. Mass spectrometry results also indicated that the two cysteine residues of Gli-ta/Gli-ta-like proteins participated in the formation of intermolecular disulphide bonds in vivo.

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