Low temperature induced defence gene expression in winter wheat in relation to resistance to snow moulds and other wheat diseases
Gaudet, D.A., Wang, Y., Frick, M., Puchalski, B., Penniket, C., Ouellet, T., Robert, L., Singh, J., Laroche, A. (2011). Low temperature induced defence gene expression in winter wheat in relation to resistance to snow moulds and other wheat diseases, 180(1), 99-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.07.023
Cold hardening of winter wheat at 2 °C for 1-6. wks increased resistance to the snow mould pathogens LTB, Typhula incarnata, and Microdochium nivale as well as to powdery mildew (Blumaria graminis f. sp. graminis) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis). Using microarrays and hardening of winter wheat for 0.25, 0.5, 1, 7, 21 and 49. d, an upregulation of a wide range of stress-response genes that include defence-related and abiotic stress-related genes, transcription factors including several lipoxygenases and ethylene responsive factors, and WRKY genes was observed. For the majority of these genes, the upregulation occurred later in the 21-49. d hardening treatments and coincided with the highest expression levels of snow mould resistance. Defence-related sequences were upregulated to a greater extent and were more numerous in the snow mould resistant line CI14106 compared to cold hardy DH+268. Transcript profiling of candidate defence and other stress-related genes under prolonged conditions at -3 °C with or without snow mould infection showed that there was a decline in transcripts of the defence-related genes PR1.1b and NPR3 during the 12. wks incubation. Additionally, 14. d hardening was insufficient to permit full expression of the jasmonic acid synthesis gene, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and the fructan degrading enzyme β-fructofuranosidase compared the 42. d hardening treatment. The snow mould resistant line CI14106 was able to maintain higher transcript levels of AOS for longer conditions compared to the susceptible line Norstar under artificial snow mould conditions. These results explain the nature of cold-induced resistance to snow moulds and provide direction on establishing selection criteria for improving resistance and cold tolerance in winter wheat. © 2010.
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