Diversity of non-native terrestrial arthropods on woody plants in Canada
Langor, D.W., DeHaas, L.J., Foottit, R.G. (2009). Diversity of non-native terrestrial arthropods on woody plants in Canada, 11(1), 5-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-008-9327-x
A list of non-native phytophagous insects and mites on woody plants (trees, shrubs, vines) in Canada was compiled using information from literature and input from taxonomists. The 419 recorded species include Hemiptera (53% of species), Lepidoptera (22%), Coleoptera (13%) and Hymenoptera (9%). Almost all species originate from the Palearctic, especially Europe, reflecting historical trade patterns. About 41% of species were directly introduced to Canada from countries of origin, and the remainder spread from the United States of America (USA) after initial establishment there. Major ports on the east and west coasts, on Lake Erie and Lake Ontario are the main points of entry for exotic species directly introduced, and southern British Columbia (BC), Ontario (ON) and Quebec (QC) are the major points of entry for species spreading from the USA. Consequently, BC, ON, QC and Nova Scotia have the highest diversity of non-native species, and the prairie provinces and northern territories have the lowest. The extent of the distribution of individual species is related to length of time in Canada, number of introductions and dispersal abilities. Almost all native woody plant genera in Canada have been invaded by exotic phytophages. The large majority of phytophages occur on angiosperms. Woody plant genera with the largest distribution, highest species diversity and highest local abundances tend to host the greatest number of non-native species, including Picea, Pinus, Malus, Prunus, Salix, Betula, Quercus, Pyrus and Populus. The arrival rate of species in Canada increased from the late nineteenth century until about 1960, and declined rapidly thereafter. Quarantine legislation enacted in the USA in 1912 and in Canada in 1976 seems to have reduced the rate of insect invasion. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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