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Lethal and sublethal toxic effects of a test chemical (ivermectin) on the yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria) based on a standardized international ring test

Römbke, J., Floate, K.D., Jochmann, R., Schäfer, M.A., Puniamoorthy, N., Knäbe, S., Lehmhus, J., Rosenkranz, B., Scheffczyk, A., Schmidt, T., Sharples, A., Blanckenhorn, W.U. (2009). Lethal and sublethal toxic effects of a test chemical (ivermectin) on the yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria) based on a standardized international ring test, 28(10), 2117-2124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/08-599.1

Abstract

A standardized bioassay using the yellow dung fly, Scathophaga stercoraria L. (Diptera: Scathophagidae), was developed to test the lethal and sublethal toxicity of parasiticide residues in livestock dung. The repeatability of the bioassay was assessed for the parasiticide ivermectin in 13 tests performed by seven laboratories in Germany, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and Canada. Test results had an acceptable range of heterogeneity. The calculated median effective concentration for 50% (EC50) egg-to-adult mortality was 20.9 ± 19.1 μg ivermectin/kg dung fresh weight (FW) (mean ± standard deviation; range, 6.33-67.5 μg/kg). Mortality was not observed below a calculated no-observable-effect concentration (NOEC) of 8.1 ± 7.7 μg/kg FW. However, prolonged development time (and, in a subset of tests, reduced body size) was observed above a calculated NOEC of 0.8 ± 0.8 μg/kg FW. An oviposition site choice test revealed that yellow dung fly females do not discriminate among dung of different ivermectin concentrations. Thus, the yellow dung fly is suitably sensitive, and the methods are sufficiently repeatable, to support use of this standardized bioassay by the international community in the registration of new veterinary pharmaceuticals. © 2009 SETAC.

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