Dose response to cinnamaldehyde supplementation in growing beef heifers: Ruminal and intestinal digestion
Yang, W.Z., Ametaj, B.N., Benchaar, C., Beauchemin, K.A. (2010). Dose response to cinnamaldehyde supplementation in growing beef heifers: Ruminal and intestinal digestion, 88(2), 680-688. http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1652
The objective of this study was to determine if cinnamaldehyde (CIN) could be used to improve feed intake, digestion, and immune status in growing beef heifers fed high-concentrate diets. The experiment was designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square using 4 ruminally and duodenally cannulated beef heifers with 4 treatments: control (no CIN added), 400 mg/d of CIN (low), 800 mg/d of CIN (medium), and 1,600 mg/d of CIN (high), and four 21-d periods. Feed intake, rumen pH and fermentation characteristics, site and extent of digestion, microbial N synthesis, blood metabolites, and acute phase protein response were measured. The diets consisted of 15% barley silage, 80% dry-rolled barley grain, and 5% supplement (DM basis). Intakes (kg/d) of DM, OM, NDF, starch, and N were quadratically (P = 0.04) changed with increasing CIN supplementation. The amount of OM fermented in the rumen quadratically (P = 0.02) decreased with increasing CIN. Digestibilities (% of intake) of OM, NDF, and N in the rumen were not affected by supplementing with low and medium CIN, but they were reduced by 8% (P = 0.10), 31% (P = 0.05), and 17% (P = 0.05), respectively, with high CIN. Similarly, digestibilities of OM and NDF in the total tract also tended to be reduced by 7% (P = 0.10) and 20% (P = 0.10), respectively, with high CIN because supplementation of CIN had minimal effects on intestinal digestibility. Flows (g/d) of microbial N and other nutrients to the duodenum were not affected by CIN supplementation, even though the amount of ruminal fermented OM varied with level of CIN supplementation. Rumen pH, total VFA concentration, and molar proportions of individual VFA were not affected by CIN. Although concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.06) and triglyceride (P = 0.01) were quadratically changed with increasing CIN supplementation, blood concentrations of glucose and urea N, white blood cell counts, serum amyloid A, and lipopolysaccharide in plasma were not affected by CIN. Plasma haptoglobin numerically (P = 0.11) decreased with the medium dose of CIN fed compared with control. The results indicate that supplementation of a high-concentrate diet with a low dose of CIN resulted in small increases in nutrient availability in the rumen due to increased feed intake and greater ruminal digestion of OM. However, feed intake and ruminal digestion of feeds were adversely affected when a high dose of CIN was used. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.
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