Regulation of estrogen receptor beta activity and implications in health and disease.
Swedenborg, E., Power, K.A., Cai, W., Pongratz, I., and Rüegg, J. (2009). "Regulation of estrogen receptor beta activity and implications in health and disease.", Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 66(24), pp. 3873-3894. doi : 10.1007/s00018-009-0118-z Access to full text
Together with the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) mediates many of the physiological effects of estrogens. As ERβ is crucially involved in a variety of important physiological processes, its activity should be tightly regulated. ERβ regulation is achieved by hormone binding as well as by posttranslational modifications of the receptor. Furthermore, ERβ expression levels are under circadian control and can be regulated by DNA methylation of the ERβ promoter region. There are also a number of factors that can interfere with ERβ activity, such as phytoestrogens, endocrine disruptive chemicals, and growth factors. In this article, we outline different mechanisms of ERβ regulation and how they are implicated in various diseases. We also discuss how these insights might help to specifically target ERβ in drug design.
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