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‘SJM167’ and ‘SJM188’, two new Winter Hardy Apple Rootstocks.

Khanizadeh, S., Dubé, C., Groleau, Y., Levasseur, A., Carisse, O., Toussaint, V., Granger, R., and Rousselle, G.L. (2009). "‘SJM167’ and ‘SJM188’, two new Winter Hardy Apple Rootstocks.", European Journal of Horticultural Science, 74(5), pp. 223-226.


In 1960, a breeding program was initiated in Morden, Manitoba to develop winter hardy rootstocks for cold climates and then the program was transferred to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Horticultural Research and Development Centre, at St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec. ‘SJM167’ (St-Jean Morden 167) and ‘SJM188’ (St-Jean Morden 188) were selected from the initial population and evaluated since 1970 in replicated trials. These two rootstocks were found to be very winter hardy, disease resistant, dwarfing, with good yield efficiency and were released for commercial evaluation and presently available from Canadian Food Inspection Agency in BC or from Meiosis Inc. in Europe (

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