Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Science: Cultivating an Innovative Advantage 2009
Message From the Minister
Canada is a country deeply rooted in agriculture. In many ways, agriculture has shaped the face of this country and its people.
The agriculture sector faces numerous challenges in the 21st century, including increased global competition and increased consumer concerns with health, food safety and the environment. Despite these challenges, the sector has retained its status as a key driver of productivity and prosperity in Canada through its ongoing efforts to adapt and change.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) has a long history in providing science solutions to the sector and Canadians. AAFC is one of the most significant contributors to agricultural research in Canada. It is committed to ensuring its investments and efforts in science and innovation remain relevant to Canada's agriculture and agri-food sector and all Canadians.
The results of our investments are programs, initiatives and collaborations in support of Canadian farmers in the areas of crop and animal disease prevention and resistance, new crop uses and technology commercialization, to name a few. This report, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Science: Cultivating an Innovative Advantage 2009, highlights our numerous research activities that will help keep Canadian producers at the forefront of innovation for years to come.
As the federal champion for biofuels, I am committed to helping producers capture new opportunities arising from bioresources. In 2007, AAFC launched the Agricultural Bioproducts Innovation Program, a multi-year collaborative program linking governments, universities and industry to build greater research capacity in the field of bioresources and the bioeconomy. This program provides a template for future agricultural research and development processes.
Canada's success as a nation is related to the hard work and dedication of farmers. My goal as Minister is to put farmers first in every decision we make. Our new policy framework, Growing Forward, is about building a better future for agriculture. We're encouraging innovation that runs from "mind to market" to find the most profitable way to deliver products from field to fork.
Message From the Deputy Minister
The Canadian agriculture and agri-food sector is continually changing and growing, striving to meet evolving consumer needs and market pressures. These changes bring new opportunities for Canada and for Canadian farmers, processors and retailers.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) uses science and technology to support sector competitiveness to generate returns across the agriculture and agri-food sector. AAFC scientists have helped to make Canada a world leader in food quality and safety, innovation and environmentally responsible agricultural production. AAFC Science: Cultivating an Innovative Advantage 2009 underscores some of their key work.
AAFC has created an innovative and competitive Canadian agriculture and agri-food sector, whose partners work in unison to be world leaders in the production and marketing of food and other agricultural products and services that meet global consumer needs in a way that respects the environment and contributes to the best quality of life for all Canadians.
AAFC's new agricultural policy framework (Growing Forward) identifies science and innovation as a central element of a new dynamic vision for Canada's agriculture and agri-food sector. Growing Forward will implement a long-term science strategy and action plan with new program developments for the sector along the innovation continuum.
That innovation capacity will help support commercialization and on-farm innovation, through the application of sound science.
Message From the Assistant Deputy Minister
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's (AAFC) vision is to lead Canada towards a better future and improved economic prosperity through agricultural research and innovation. AAFC research provides the agriculture and agri-food sector with information, research, and technology that generates wealth for producers and the country, and helps achieve security of the food system, health of the environment, and innovation for growth to strengthen Canada's economy.
AAFC is an organization of change, ready to face new challenges, work with partners, build science capacity to meet future challenges and create economic opportunities for the Canadian agri-food sector. AAFC's Research Branch is leading this change. Our scientists are conducting innovative research to help Canadian producers remain at the forefront of new agricultural developments and ensure the health and well-being of Canadians. Cultivating an Innovative Advantage 2009 highlights some of our recent research efforts in support of the agriculture and agri-food sector in Canada.
AAFC positions its research projects, programs and initiatives to support the agriculture and agri-food sector and Canadians to ensure "we do the right research and we do it right." With 19 research centres spread across the country and 663 scientific staff and research professionals among some 2,300 employees, AAFC's Research Branch is well established to conduct world class research and develop programs to address national research priorities.
Dr. Marc Fortin
Assistant Deputy Minister
Welcome to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Science: Cultivating an Innovative Advantage 2009. This publication highlights the major activities of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) scientists since 2007. From increasing Canadian opportunities in the new bio-based economy, to developing healthier foods and engaging in new collaborative projects, research performed by scientists at AAFC's 19 research centres has produced results benefiting the agriculture sector and Canadians alike.
The research results highlighted in this report demonstrate the important role AAFC scientists play in providing science solutions to 21st century issues. These results include the reduction of pesticide use by wheat farmers, the resolution of a beef/cattle trade issue with the United States, and the protection of canola plants from invasive species.
The enclosed CD contains: 1) 2,953 scientific publications produced by AAFC scientists, 2) the list of all research projects performed by AAFC scientists, 3) a list of our scientific staff and their expertise and 4) a description of our research centres across Canada. This publication speaks volumes about the activities of our scientists and looks forward to fostering good science to support the agriculture and agri-food sector in Canada.
Seven strategic goals and objectives were determined in 2006 after comprehensive consultations with the public and numerous stakeholders in the agriculture and agri-food sector. These goals and objectives, outlined in the AAFC Science and Innovation (S&I) Strategy, guide all new research investments.
The strategic goals and objectives outlined in AAFC's Science and Innovation Strategy focus on:
- Investments in science and innovation national research priorities
- Excellence in science and science management
- Partnering for impact
- Extending our capacities to the bio-based economy
- Accelerating the adoption and commercialization of scientific knowledge
- Providing strong leadership
- Providing science knowledge and advice
Our Science and Innovation National Priorities
The first goal in the Science and Innovation (S&I) Strategy is research based on national research priorities. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) developed seven research priorities that range from nutrition to food safety and investing in bioresources.
Food and Health: Nutrition, Diet and Innovative Products
AAFC researchers study the role of food in health and seek to understand biomolecular action in physiological systems. Their goal is to discover and isolate new products that are beneficial to health, such as nutraceuticals or functional foods. AAFC is seeking to work on the various links in the value chain, up to and including clinical studies, in order to go beyond the simple prevention of disease and consider developing products that contribute to human well-being.
Researchers from AAFC work on technologies to improve our understanding of food-gut interactions. They have been successful in demonstrating the health benefits of many food ingredients, including cereals, legumes, nuts and berries. Blueberries are packed with antioxidants, which may help prevent cancer, heart disease, Alzheimer's and other effects of aging. AAFC food chemist, Wilhelmina Kalt, noted that blueberries appear to be especially effective in the health and functioning of the neural system. Kalt also notes that the berries are good for more than just antioxidant properties.
"While blueberries are packed with flavonoids which have strong anti-oxidant properties, it's their anti-inflammatory properties that really count." (Vancouver Courier, September 2007)
AAFC researchers have developed an artificial stomach and the first section of the intestines in order to replicate in laboratory the real conditions of the upper digestive system. Preliminary tests with certain foods revealed that the artificial stomach can simulate what happens in pigs quite well. The research team has since extended their research to the digestion of legumes. Next, researchers want to study the survival of beneficial bacteria as well as the behaviour of other bioactive substances in this system.
Food and Health: Helping Industry Develop Healthy Foods and Products
A Strong Pulse for Canadians
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) funded seven human clinical studies to determine the impact pulses have on weight loss, lowering cholesterol and improving gut health. Pulse Canada, an industry association representing pulse growers, processors and traders in Canada, expects the results of these studies will raise the health profile of pulses, encouraging Canadians to consume more pulses while increasing market shares to benefit growers. The group is also working to find out how to get food processors to use more pulses in their products. The ultimate goal is to increase domestic consumption of pulses so that Canadians can share in the health benefits enjoyed in other parts of the world.
A New Addition to the Produce Aisle
A Saskatchewan company, Emerald Seed Products Limited, hopes to make fenugreek a household name in North America. The company, which has 30 local farmers as investors, bases its future success on research and work with the health community to document the health claims for fenugreek. These claims include lowering serum cholesterol and providing a defence against diabetes. The company established a fenugreek processing plant in 2004. AAFC committed $640,000 to the company's work.
Getting Value From Grapes
An Ontario company, Vinifera for Life Inc., has produced a line of flours made from the skins of grapes leftover from wine production. These flours contain beneficial antioxidants linked to the prevention of cancer, heart disease, stroke and diabetes. They can be mixed with traditional flours to create pasta, bread and pizza. This innovative approach adds value to a previously discarded grape byproduct, boosting the bottom line of producers and processors. Vinifera for Life Inc. is one of seven start-up businesses that now sell products as a result of help from Guelph-based BioEnterprise, a commercialization agent working with $1 million from AAFC.
Milk: A Complete Nutritional Package
While many industries are looking at extracting nutrients and compounds from commodities linked to health benefits, Canada's milk producers are focusing on their number one product as a complete health package. Through a project called Premium Milk Innovation, the industry is working on a growth strategy built on milk's natural health benefits, including superior absorption of calcium compared to other sources. Novalait Inc., the group spearheading Premium Milk Innovation with $1.4 million in funding from AAFC, is hoping for a better understanding of the health and nutritional properties of milk and using the information to drive a wave of innovation based on this core product.
Safety and Quality of Food
Contaminant-tracing systems as well as tools, technologies and practices ensuring food safety have been developed to facilitate the detection, description and monitoring of food contaminants. Among other things, research work focuses on the impact of processing activities on the nutritional value of food products, new packing materials, and standards pertaining to products as well as shelf life.
Fusarium head blight is a huge challenge internationally. Various strategies have been explored to combat this fungus that produces a very stable toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). Over the last two years, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) researchers have developed a technique to produce the toxin in large quantities so it can be better studied. A very sensitive method for detecting it in grain samples has also been developed, and the harvest time effect on toxin production has been studied. Genes that confer resistance to fusarium head blight have been characterized in barley, and varieties with improved resistance have been developed. Other studies have been conducted on the intestinal flora of chickens that do not appear to suffer from the consumption of infected barley, and have revealed that bacteria inactivated the DON toxin, thereby opening the way to other decontamination processes.
Security of Our Food Sources
Over the last few years, several cases of food-borne viral transmission have been documented around the world. Some have been linked to the handling of food by infected people or the use of contaminated water, but for several epidemic outbreaks, the entry points of pathogenic viruses in the human food chain remain unknown.
An AAFC research group is seeking to identify entry points of pathogenic viruses in humans in the food chain, to evaluate the survival and persistence profiles of these viruses and to develop farm-to-table control strategies. The development of new knowledge and tools aimed at better identifying and controlling risk factors connected to the transmission of pathogenic viruses through food products will improve our food safety and contribute to the safety and protection of our food supply.
Generating Benefits for Our Agricultural Sector
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) scientists are developing new products and agricultural production systems to improve income opportunities at the farm level, as well as production efficiency and the competitiveness of Canadian agricultural products.
Strongfield durum wheat contains a gene that reduces the absorption of cadmium, a heavy metal found in large quantities in some Canadian soils. This characteristic allows Strongfield wheat to meet the international market's growing demands for low cadmium levels in food. This durum offers superior yield, a very strong gluten, as well as low susceptibility to lodging, early maturity and disease resistance comparable to other current varieties of durum wheat.
Winning the Battle Against Wheat Midge
Wheat midge was first reported in Manitoba in 1954. In 2006, a midge infestation caused an estimated $40 million in yield and grade losses in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, while the pest can cause up to $100 million in losses in a year of high infestation. Currently pesticide application is the only defence against wheat midge.
Controlling the wheat midge through use of genetic resistance was deemed possible after the key breakthrough discovery of the Sm1 midge resistance gene, identified in old American soft red winter wheat varieties, and the transfer of Sm1 into spring wheat varieties. This gene produces early induction of two naturally occurring compounds within wheat kernels (ferrulic acid and p-coumaric acid) that discourage insect feeding on the plant. These compounds dissipate by the time the crop has matured.
More than 15 years of research culminated in the registration of two midge-resistant spring wheat varieties in 2007: Unity and Goodeve. This breakthrough stems from the work of AAFC entomologists and wheat breeders from Winnipeg and Swift Current, with support from the Western Grains Research Foundation.
The average annual consumption of beef in Canada is 31 kg per person. The nutritional quality of meat could therefore have a significant impact on the health of Canadians. AAFC scientists have shown that replacing 15% of the cattle's regular feed with sunflower and flax seed could double the proportion of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk and meat. CLA appears to reduce the incidence of some cancers and reduces the symptoms of diabetes.
Bluetongue No Longer Sticks Out As Cattle Trade Impediment
A potential beef trade issue between Canada and the United States was defused, thanks to the work of Dr. Tim Lysyk, an Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) scientist at the Lethbridge Research Centre in Alberta.
At the centre of this issue is Culicoides, a biting fly that makes its home and takes its meals in livestock facilities. The fly can spread viral diseases among cattle, including the devastating bluetongue disease. Apart from the Okanagan Valley in British Columbia, Canada is free of this disease. However, the potential for outbreaks elsewhere has caused severe restrictions on animal movement and loss of international trade.
Dr. Lysyk's research has been instrumental in understanding the biodiversity and lifecycle of Culicoides. He has shown how factors such as temperature affect the fly's abundance, number of eggs laid, larval development and physical features. This yields important new information for assessing the risk of bluetongue transmission to cattle herds, which is considerably lower than originally thought.
As a result of Dr. Lysyk's work, bluetongue-related import restrictions have been removed, paving the way to secure and mutually benefical trade of beef across the border while safeguarding the Canadian economy and livelihood of producers in the beef, sheep and ruminant sectors.
Environment and Agriculture
Environmentally responsible agricultural production and processing has both public and private benefits. Greenhouse gas reductions and developing more environmentally sound farming practices are current AAFC priorities.
AAFC scientists have developed a greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting and verification system to evaluate GHG emissions and to develop mitigation strategies for agricultural production. This has made it possible to develop farm conservation practices, the quasi-general adoption of which has made Canada's farmlands a net carbon dioxide sink. Agriculture can thus help reduce Canadian GHG emissions.
AAFC research teams have developed mathematical models for predicting drift when applying pesticides. This makes it possible to adjust the required buffer zones based on the applicator and meteorological conditions. Application efficiency is greatly enhanced, while risks to the environment are minimized. And thanks to the new sprayers developed by AAFC engineers and adopted by most producers, pests can be targeted better than ever.
Protecting Our Living Resources and Our Genetic Diversity
Improving capacity and scientific knowledge for classifying, evaluating, conserving and preserving Canadian biological resources is vital for conserving the genetic diversity of these resources and for responses to changes impacting agriculture, such as agricultural practices and climate change.
A multidisciplinary scientific team has developed a "hairy" canola with stems and young leaves covered in trichomes. Researchers are studying the hypothesis that this hairiness reduces insect predation, particularly flea beetles. This hairiness might constitute a mechanical resistance to insects and therefore reduce the use of insecticides on canola crops.
"What we anticipate is that the insect will run around on the top of the hairs and the insects won't be able to touch and taste the canola leaf in the same way," said lead researcher Margaret Gruber of the Saskatoon Research Centre.
The Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes
Invasive alien species are a significant threat to biodiversity and economic wellbeing. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) maintains the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes (CNC), which dates back to 1917, and continues to actively develop this collection. The CNC currently consists of more than 16 million dry and slide-mounted or liquid-preserved specimens and is among the five largest arthropod collections in the world. The biodiversity information collected is used to assess the impact of agricultural practices, invasive alien species, climate change and habitat loss on Canadian native species. The extensive collection also ensures AAFC researchers can authoritatively identify species and share information and advice across Canada and internationally.
22nd Century Agriculture: Bioresources!
Bioproducts are manufactured from renewable resources such as agricultural crops and organic residual matter, and include products such as biofuels, biofibres and biopharmaceuticals.
Brassica seeds can contain large proportions of protein, in addition to the lipids that are normally extracted from them. Oil extraction methods that do not negatively impact proteins are under development. Such techniques would make it possible to use the extracted proteins in food additives or even isolate pharmaceutical-quality proteins.
Canada's New Cinderella Crop
New evidence about the health benefits of flax and a surge in its industrial uses has many convinced that flax is the successor to canola as Canada's Cinderella crop. Once considered simply a source for linens, linseed oil and linoleum, flax is now moving into the human health realm as a major source of omega-3 oil. Moreover, flax straw is showing promise as a replacement for fiberglass in the manufacturing of car parts.
A multidisciplinary research network involving Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) and university collaborators was established to enhance the development of industrial soybean and flax crops as feedstocks for the bio-economy. Researchers will modify low-value seed components, like seed coats, which govern important economic traits such as size, colour, yield and composition. The research will generate crops with novel value-added traits, which are specifically important for the biofuel and bioproducts industries, as well as new processes for bioremediation of industrial waste. AAFC's effort could result in a key competitive advantage by generating new knowledge and technologies.
AAFC scientists and other federal partners collaborated to develop an Internet-based tool to identify agricultural residue and forestry and urban woody biomass available for conversion to energy and bioproducts. The Biomass Inventory Mapping and Analysis Tool (BIMAT) has generated an inventory of woody and agricultural biomass based on long-term average production experience by specific location and region. The tool allows users to query the Graphic Information System database for production information by location against a backdrop of transportation and energy infrastructure. Once the Beta testing and evaluation of BIMAT is completed, queries may be made to seek quantities by specific biomass type within a specified radius, or seek distance requirements for a specific volume requirement from a specified location. Sustainability criteria applied to the models include erosion protection, tillage system type and nutrient balance.
Future development of BIMAT will expand the materials in the inventory and develop additional analytical functions, including economic and carbon costs of producing, harvesting and transporting biomass. By combining the materials suited for next generation technologies with the seed quality information to target low grade materials, we hope to encourage appropriate investment.
A Commitment to Science Excellence
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) is accountable to the highest scientific standards. For this reason, AAFC now submits all new research projects to evaluation by a panel of external scientific experts prior to allocating funding. By evaluating the excellence of research proposals, AAFC strives to provide the best possible investment of public funds. AAFC is the first federal government department to adopt this proposal review approach, reflecting its commitment to deliver premier scientific research in the agriculture and agri-food sector in Canada.
In 2008-2009, AAFC funded 59 new agricultural research projects across Canada. In addition, funds were allocated to continue work on 185 research projects approved in 2007-2008. The proposals from each discipline are evaluated by panel members composed of independent experts from national and international institutions such as universities, other government organisations and industry. The panel members assess research proposals on:
- Scientific excellence of the research scientists
- Scientific merit and originality of the proposal
- Contribution to innovation and to AAFC National Priorities
- Feasibility and potential to achieve objectives and deliver outputs
AAFC also assesses whether the research proposals align with federal government and departmental mandates.
Sharing Our Results With Canadians
AAFC's research projects are posted on Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's Web site at www.agr.gc.ca/ScienceandInnovation. This allows the public to view projects, teams and funds allocated to various projects. AAFC's peer-reviewed projects are also detailed in the CD accompanying this booklet.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Science and Innovation in the News
February 21, 2008
A new day dawns for Sundown pear, latest variety in Canada
December 8, 2007
Les bactéries de leur système digestif pourraient aider à diminuer les GES des bovins
September 9, 2007
Le Soleil, Le Monde
August 17, 2007
Edmonton Journal, Calgary Herald, CanWest News Service, National Post, Ottawa Citizen
'Canasnack' makes debut in space; Canada creates newest snack for astronauts
May 8, 2007
Regina Leader Post
Grain's 100th year celebrated
May 8, 2007
La Tribune (Sherbrooke)
Un pôle d'innovation canadien méconnu; Le Centre de recherche et de développement sur le bovin laitier et le porc
August 22, 2007
The Windsor Star
Getting inside soybeans; Scanner helps develop new varieties
May 27, 2005
Scientists trying to give bugs bad hair days
Building Innovation Systems Through Collaboration
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) collaborates with various Canadian and international industry, government and academic partners, as well as non-profit organizations to improve knowledge-generating capabilities and ensure Canada maintains a competitive edge.
A First for Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada: Collaborating With a Hospital
A groundbreaking collaboration between AAFC, the University of Manitoba and St. Boniface General Hospital in Winnipeg has scientists and medical researchers working side by side. They research the health-related claims of various foods through the identification of active ingredients and analysis on their safety. Functional food and nutraceutical development is increasingly focused on scientifically validated health claims and technology development. AAFC invested $17 million in this collaboration with medical researchers, forming a critical link between food production and clinical studies.
A Fermenting Success
Caldwell Bio Fermentation Canada Inc. (CBFC) has garnered a worldwide reputation for its preservative-free organic products. The process to develop these products, known as lacto-fermentation, preserves the vitamins and nutrients found in vegetables, creating health benefits for consumers.
CBFC turned to AAFC's Food Research and Development Centre in Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec) to develop a way to package its organic products for export markets. This collaboration resulted in the development of four new technologies, generating annual sales of nearly $2 million in 2006 for CBFC and other companies. The technology created a niche market for a host of products, including sauerkraut, kimchi, carrots, black radishes and beets.
Agricultural Bioproducts Innovation Program: ABIP
Through the Agricultural Bioproducts Innovation Program (ABIP), AAFC is funding a number of research networks and clusters to promote research, development, technology transfer and the commercialization of agricultural bioproducts, including biofuels. Funded networks bring together 62 industry partners and 36 academic partners, and focus on:
- Feedstock production through the development of crop platforms and cropping systems suitable for conversion to bioproducts
- Effective and efficient technology development for biomass conversion
- Product diversification through technologies relevant to production of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, biomaterials and health products
ABIP reflects the cultural change in which AAFC conducts science and innovation. It represents a focus on collaboration and brings together the best players from all areas of research.
Around the World
International science cooperation is leveraging the science and innovation capacity of AAFC with world-class science organizations and assists Canadian industries in international trade and market access.
AAFC has 15 Memoranda of Understanding and 33 other science collaboration arrangements with 21 countries, including the United States, France, China, the United Kingdom, Spain, Israel, India and Mexico.
Enhancing Canada's Commercial Advantage Through Technology Transfer
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's (AAFC) Science and Innovation Strategy seeks to accelerate the adoption of technologies.
Getting innovative technologies from the laboratory to the marketplace is the essence of technology transfer and commercialization. AAFC deploys its intellectual property to speed the development and the adoption of public sector research and innovation to enhance the value of Canada's agri-food and bioproducts sectors. AAFC currently holds about 600 licenses with more than 200 companies.
Philom Bios, a Saskatoon, Saskatchewanbased manufacturer of seed inoculants, has developed several products with key ingredients including Penicllium bilaii, a naturally occurring soil fungus that increases the availability of soil phosphates to plants and Rhizobium leguminosarum, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium.
The potential of these organisms to stimulate plant growth was discovered by an AAFC research team from Lethbridge, Alberta, which subsequently patented the inoculation technology and licensed it to Philom Bios. Canada's cumulative royalties on this technology are now well over $1.5 million.
Technology Transfer Achievements
Each year, Federal Partners in Technology Transfer (FPTT) recognizes teams and individuals who have achieved excellence in tech transfer. AAFC boasts several award-winning commercial applications of our scientific discoveries, including an award for an innovative flaxseed dehulling technology.
Canada leads the world in flax production and exports. Flax kernels and hulls are a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, lignans and dietary fibre. These components are valued for helping decrease blood cholesterol and reducing the risk of stroke, heart disease and cancer. An AAFC team, in collaboration with Natunola Health Inc., an Ottawa-based supplier of botanical ingredients to the cosmetic and health care industries, developed a bench-top dehulling process to extract valuable flax components without damaging the oil-containing cells in flax seeds.
The resulting technology was subsequently patented and licensed to Natunola Health Inc. The company now produces a full range of flax-containing products and has built the world's first flax dehulling plant in Winchester, Ontario. Dr. Steve Cui, of the Guelph Food Research Centre, was the principal AAFC researcher on the project and won a FPTT Leadership Award for this innovative work.
Published Science and Innovation
Each year, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada researchers produce a large number of publications which highlight our science and innovation activities. Research publications are evaluated by independent experts to ensure they meet the highest standards of scientific excellence. These publications are scientific and/or technical in nature.
A Great Web Site!
The public can consult the entire scientific output of our 19 research centres with a visit to our completely revamped Web site at www.agr.gc.ca/ScienceandInnovation.
The site includes:
- Citations of research publications published in national and international journals
- AAFC's Office of Intellectual Property and Commercialization, which lists inventions generated by AAFC scientists
- AAFC's International Science Cooperation Bureau, which lists collaborative arrangements with foreign countries
- Scientific profiles of each of our 663 scientists, including their research activities and their scientific expertise
- AAFC's Science and Innovation Strategy, which guides all new research investments
- A list of all the research projects currently being worked on by AAFC scientists
- Access to a list of our Research Programs
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