Turkington, T. Kelly, Ph.D.

Research Scientist


Contact Information:

6000 C and E Trail
Lacombe, Alberta T4L 1W1
Telephone: 403-782-8138
Fax: 403-782-6120
Email: kelly.turkington@agr.gc.ca

Areas of Expertise:

  • scald
  • net blotch
  • sclerotinia
  • fusarium
  • common root rot
  • canola diseases
  • cereals
  • barley
  • plant pathology
  • crop improvement - 210
  • integrated disease management
  • integrated crop management
  • disease risk assessment
  • Research areas include:
    • the improvement and management of resistance to scald, net blotch, smuts, and root rots in barley breeding lines and varieties
  • investigation of the impact of cropping systems on cereal and oilseed diseases, and crop health, competitiveness, productivity and quality
  • disease control using integrated pest management and integrated crop management
  • Barley research is conducted as part of the Alberta/Canada Barley Development Agreement, a joint project between Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada and Alberta Agriculture and Food.

Current Projects:

  • Integrated Best Management practices for substainable malt and feed barley production
  • Crop Sequence Studies that Impact Ecosystem Productivity.
  • Development of new barley cultivars with improved resistance to plant pathogens to minimize losses in quality and reduce environment and production risks.
  • Assess the ability of crop varieties to cope with biotic agents and determine the risks to crop production.
  • Canola Production Research Phase II
  • Improve utilization efficiency of inputs to obtain attainable yields of high quality product, and improve agroecosystem health and mitigate climate change
  • Determine the incidence and severity of biotic stresses on cereals to monitor existing and emerging issues.
  • Characterization of yield and quality (including food safety) losses caused by biotic stresses - Cereal pathology
  • Identify and quantify environmental and cultural factors that influence pest status
  • Develop strategies to manage biotic risks in crop production systems, in particular low input and organic production systems.
  • Assessment of crop varieties to cope with biotic agents and determine the risks to crop production.
  • Determination of biotypes-pests and diseases of Cereals (i.e. virulence phenotypes, races, pesticide resistant isolates) in pest populations.
  • Genetic changes in the Canadian Fusarium graminearum population and their effect on pathogenicity, toxin production, fungicide sensitivity, and disease spread.

Affiliations:

  • Adjunct Professor, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta
  • Chair, Prairie Grain Development Committee (PGDC)
  • Western Committee on Plant Diseases, Alternate Chair, Cereals Chapter Chair
  • Prairie Recommending Committee for Oat and Barley, Disease Evaluation Team
  • Prairie Recommending Committee for Wheat, Rye and Triticale, Disease Evaluation Team
  • Member of the Canadian Phytopathological Society and the American Phytopathological Society

Research Publications:

The links below lead to abstracts with access to full text.

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

Other Science Related Publications:

2013

  • Akhavan, A., Turkington, T.K., Kebede, B., Strelkov, I.S., Xi, K., Kumar, K., Tekauz, A., Kutcher, H.R., Tucker, J.R., Kirkham, C., Dunfield, K.E., and Strelkov, S.E. (2013). "Etiology of Pyrenophora teres forms causing intermediate symptoms of net blotch in barley fields on the Prairies.", 84th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Phytopathological Society, Edmonton, AB, Canada, June 16-19, 2013, Received 2013 Canadian Phytopathological Society Best Student Poster Presentation Award. (Poster)
  • Akhavan, A., Turkington, T.K., Kebede, B., Tekauz, A., Xi, K., Kutcher, H.R., Tucker, J.R., Kirkham, C., Kumar, K., Rennie, D.C., and Strelkov, S.E. (2013). "Assessing the nature and variability of the barley net blotch pathogen on the Canadian Prairies and the ability to adapt to host resistance and fungicides.", 2nd Annual General Meeting of the Alberta Barley Commission, Banff, AB, Canada, December 4-6, 2013, Received 2013 Alberta Barley Commission 2nd Place Student Poster Competition. (Poster)
  • Akhavan, A., Turkington, T.K., Kebede, B., Tekauz, A., Xi, K., Kutcher, H.R., Tucker, J.R., Kirkham, C., Kumar, K., Rennie, D.C., and Strelkov, S.E. (2013). "Genetic diversity of the spot form of the net blotch pathogen of barley (Pyrenophora teres f. maculata) on the Canadian Prairies as revealed by simple sequence repeats analysis.", 34th Annual Meeting of the Plant Pathology Society of Alberta, Brooks, AB, Canada, November 4-6, 2013, Received 2013 Plant Pathology Society of Alberta Best Student Poster Presentation Award. (Poster)
  • Akhavan, A., Turkington, T.K., Kebede, B., Tekauz, A., Xi, K., Kutcher, H.R., Tucker, J.R., Kirkham, C., Kumar, K., Rennie, D.C., and Strelkov, S.E. (2013). "Genetic structure of Pyrenophora teres f. teres (net form net blotch of barley) populations from the Canadian Prairies as revealed by simple sequence repeats analysis.", 34th Annual Meeting of the Plant Pathology Society of Alberta, Brooks, AB, Canada, November 4-6, 2013, oral presentation.
  • Akhavan, A., Turkington, T.K., Strelkov, I.S., Xi, K., Kumar, K., Tekauz, A., Kutcher, H.R., Tucker, J.R., Kirkham, C., Dunfield, K.E., and Strelkov, S.E. (2013). "Occurrence of forms and mating type idiomorphs in western Canadian Pyrenophora teres (net blotch of barley) populations.", 84th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Phytopathological Society, Edmonton, AB, Canada, June 16-19, 2013, Received 2013 Canadian Phytopathological Society Graduate Student Travel Award.

2012

  • Kutcher, H.R., Eynck, C., Gossen, B.D., Turkington, T.K., Brandt, S.A., and Xi, K. (2012). "Disease implications of canola-intensive crop rotations.", in Beckie, H.J. and Hall, L.M. (eds.) - Topics in Canadian Weed Science. Vol. 9. New Crops and Crops with Second-Generation Traits, Canadian Weed Science Society – Société canadienne de malherbologie, Pinawa, MB, pp. 49-66.
  • Kutcher, H.R., Turkington, T.K., Gaudet, D.A., Randhawa, H.S., Puchalski, B., Wogsberg, S., and Graf, R.J. (2012). "Managing cereal and canola diseases.", Crop Talk, Prince Albert Exhibition Centre, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, March 7, 2012, (Presentation).
  • Olfert, O.O., Weiss, R.M., Turkington, T.K., Beckie, H.J., and Kriticos, D.J. (2012). "Bioclimatic approach to assessing the potential impact of climate change on representative crop pests in North America.", Topics in Canadian Weed Science, 8, pp. 47-70.
  • Peng, G., Fernando, W.G.D., Kirkham, C.L., Lange, R., Kutcher, H.R., McLaren, D.L., Johnson, E.N., and Turkington, T.K. (2012). "Mitigating the risk of blackleg disease of canola using fungicide strategies.", Soils and Crops Workshop 2012, Universtiy of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, March 13-14, 2012, [CD], 7 pages.
  • Peng, G., Lahlali, R.L., Pageau, D., Hwang, S.F., Hynes, R.K., Anderson, K., McDonald, M.R., Gossen, B.D., Strelkov, S.E., Turkington, T.K., Yu, F.Q., Falk, K.C., Boyetchko, S.M., McGregor, L., Hupka, D., and Geissler, H.J. (2012). "Assessment of crop rotation, resistance and Bacillus subtilis for management of clubroot on canola.", Canadian Phytopathological Society (CPS) 83rd Annual Meeting and International PPV Meeting, Marriott Gateway On The Falls, Niagara Falls, ON, Canada, June 24-27, 2012, Published in: Can. J. Plant Pathol. (2013) 35(1), pp. 112.
  • Peng, G., Lahlali, R.L., Pageau, D., Hwang, S.F., Hynes, R.K., Anderson, K., McDonald, M.R., Gossen, B.D., Strelkov, S.E., Turkington, T.K., Yu, F.Q., Falk, K.C., Boyetchko, S.M., McGregor, L., Hupka, D., and Geissler, H.J. (2012). "Crop rotation, cultivar resistance, and biofungicide seed dressing for clubroot control on canola.", 6th International Symposium on Brassica and 18th Crucifer Genetics Workshop, Catania, Sicily, Italy, November 12-16, 2012.
  • Peng, G., Lahlali, R.L., Pageau, D., McDonald, M.R., Gossen, B.D., Strelkov, S.E., Turkington, T.K., Yu, F.Q., Falk, K.C., Boyetchko, S.M., McGregor, L., Hupka, D., and Geissler, H.J. (2012). "Assessment of crop rotation and host resistance in combination with Bacillus subtilis for management of clubroot on canola.", Canadian Phytopathological Society (CPS) 83rd Annual Meeting and International PPV Meeting, Marriott Gateway On The Falls, Niagara Falls, ON, Canada, June 24-27, 2012, Published in: Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 35(1), pp.122.
  • Peng, G., Pageau, D., Strelkov, S.E., Lahlali, R.L., Hwang, S.F., Hynes, R.K., Anderson, K., McDonald, M.R., Gossen, B.D., Turkington, T.K., Falk, K.C., Yu, F.Q., McGregor, L., Hupka, D., and Geissler, H.J. (2012). "Assessment of crop rotation, cultivar resistance and Bacillus subtilis biofungicide for control of clubroot on canola.", 6th International Symposium on Brassica and 18th Crucifer Genetics Workshop, Catania, Sicily, Italy, November 12-16, 2012.
  • Smith, E.G., O'Donovan, J.T., Henderson, W.J., Turkington, T.K., and Clayton, G.W. (2012). "Malting Barley Production: Profitability and Risk.", 2012 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Agricultural Economics Society (CAES), Niagara Falls, ON, Canada, June 17-19, 2012.
  • Strelkov, S.E., Hwang, S.F., Howard, R.J., Rahman, H., Kutcher, H.R., Turkington, T.K., Gossen, B.D., Peng, G., McLaren, D.L., LeBoldus, J.M., Feng, J., Cao, T., and Manolii, V.P. (2012). "Clubroot Risk Mitigation Initiative: Pathology Pillar.", Clubroot Summit 2012, Edmonton, AB, Canada, March 6, 2012, Invited presentation.
  • Turkington, T.K., Kutcher, H.R., Jurke, C., Buchwaldt, L., and McLaren, D.L. (2012). "Managing sclerotinia stem rot of canola.", Webinar, Canola Council of Canada and canola grower’s associations (ACPC/SC/MCGA), Canada, June 28, 2012. (Presentation)
  • Xi, K., Zantinge, J.L., Meadus, W.J., Nyachiro, J.M., and Turkington, T.K. (2012). "Barley cultivar resistance in relation to Rynchosporium secalis virulence in Alberta.", 7th Canadian Barley Symposium, Calgary, AB, Canada, July 8-10, 2012.

2011

  • Harker, K.N., Turkington, T.K., O'Donovan, J.T., Kutcher, H.R., and Johnson, E.N. (2011). "Barley Herbicide and Fungicide Tank-Mixtures?", Canadian Weed Science Society 65th Annual Meeting, Marriott Gateway on the Falls, Niagara Falls, ON, Canada, November 21-24, 2011, pp. 46. (Abstract)
  • Harker, K.N., Turkington, T.K., O'Donovan, J.T., Kutcher, H.R., and Johnson, E.N. (2011). "Barley Herbicide and Fungicide Tank-Mixtures?", Canadian Weed Science Society 65th Annual Meeting, Marriott Gateway on the Falls, Niagara Falls, ON, Canada, November 24, 2011. (Presentation)
  • Klein-Gebbinck, H.W., Turkington, T.K., Olfert, O.O., Weiss, R.M., Kriticos, D.J., Kutcher, H.R., Falk, K.C., and Strelkov, S.E. (2011). "Projected distribution and severity of clubroot of canola in the Canadian prairies under incremental temperature and precipitation, and potential climate change scenarios.", Climate Change and the Implications for Plant Science: The science, the impacts, and the options, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, June 7-9, 2011.
  • Kutcher, H.R., Dokken-Bouchard, F.L., Turkington, T.K., Fernando, W.G.D., Boyetchko, S.M., Buchwaldt, L., Hegedus, D.D., and Parkin, I.A.P. (2011). "Managing sclerotinia stem rot in canola.", Canola Research Summit meeting, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, April 12-13, 2011.
  • Kutcher, H.R., Turkington, T.K., Brandt, S.A., Gossen, B.D., McLaren, D.L., Dokken-Bouchard, F.L., and Strelkov, S.E. (2011). "Canola Disease Management.", Annual Indian Head Crop Management Field Day 2011, Indian Head, SK, Canada, July 19, 2011.
  • Kutcher, H.R., Turkington, T.K., Gossen, B.D., Brandt, S.A., Dokken-Bouchard, F.L., and Strelkov, S.E. (2011). "Canola Disease Resistance Management.", Crop Talk 2011 Meeting (Ministry of Agriculture and Pineland Coop), Prince Albert Exhibition Centre, Prince Albert, SK, Canada, March 8, 2011, Invited Presentation.
  • Kutcher, H.R., Turkington, T.K., Gossen, B.D., Brandt, S.A., Dokken-Bouchard, F.L., and Strelkov, S.E. (2011). "Canola Disease and Fungicide Strategies Based on Crop Rotation.", Strategies for Successful Farming Meeting, Travelodge Hotel, Regina, SK, Canada, March 2, 2011, Invited Presentation and Report Abstract.
  • Kutcher, H.R., Turkington, T.K., Gossen, B.D., Brandt, S.A., Dokken-Bouchard, F.L., and Strelkov, S.E. (2011). "Canola Disease and Fungicide Strategies Based on Crop Rotation.", Strategies for Successful Farming Meeting, Travelodge Hotel, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, March 1, 2011, Invited Presentation and Report Abstract.
  • Lange, R.M., Platford, R.G., Kutcher, H.R., Hwang, S.F., Howard, R.J., Klein-Gebbinck, H.W., Strelkov, S.E., and Turkington, T.K. (2011). "Survey of blackleg and other canola diseases in Alberta, 2010.", Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 91, pp. 112-119.
  • O'Donovan, J.T. and Turkington, T.K. (2011). "Effect of farming practices on malting grade barley and brewhouse performance.", Western Barley Growers Association & Master Brewers Association of the Americas Joint Conference, Deerfoot Inn & Casino, Calgary, AB, Canada, February 16-18, 2011.
  • O'Donovan, J.T., Blackshaw, R.E., Grant, C.A., Harker, K.N., Lafond, G.P., Johnson, E.N., Gan, Y.T., May, W.E., Turkington, T.K., and Lupwayi, N.Z. (2011). "Legume Crops to Improve Soil Fertility for Enhanced Canola Production.", 2011 ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meeting: Fundamental for life: soil, crop and environmental sciences, San Antonio, TX, USA, October 16-19, 2011. (Poster)
  • Rauhala, N.E. and Turkington, T.K. (2011). "2010 Barley disease survey in Central Alberta.", Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 91, pp. 58-59.
  • Rauhala, N.E. and Turkington, T.K. (2011). "2011 Barley disease survey in Central Alberta.", Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 92, pp. 63-64.
  • Rioux, S., Pouleur, S., Randall, P., Turkington, T.K., Vanasse, A., and Dion, Y. (2011). "La vapeur d’acide acétique et la chaleur sèche comme traitements de semences chez les céréales.", La Journée: Grandes cultures biologiques, Centre communautaire de Saint-Rémi, Saint-Rémi, QC, Canada, December 6, 2011, pp. 17.
  • Strelkov, S.E., Hwang, S.F., Howard, R.J., Rahman, H., Kutcher, H.R., Turkington, T.K., Gossen, B.D., Peng, G., McLaren, D.L., LeBoldus, J.M., Feng, J., Cao, T., and Manolii, V.P. (2011). "Clubroot Risk Mitigation Initiative: Pathology Pillar.", Clubroot Summit 2011, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, March 9, 2011, Invited presentation.
  • Tucker, J.R., Turkington, T.K., and Legge, W.G. (2011). "Barley genotype interaction with three virulent scald (Rhynchosporium secalis) pathotypes from western Canada.", 4th International Workshop on Barley Leaf Blights (IWBLB), West Park Conference Centre, Dundee, Scotland, UK, June 27-29, 2011.
  • Turkington, T.K. (2011). "Blackleg of canola strategy.", University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, November 9, 2011. (Presentation)
  • Turkington, T.K. (2011). "Canola disease research update.", Alberta Canola Industry Update 2011, Edmonton, AB, Canada, April 6, 2011.
  • Turkington, T.K. (2011). "Disease forecasting.", Integrated Crop Management (PL SC 495), AFNS Program, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, January 25 and 27, 2011. (Presentation)
  • Turkington, T.K. (2011). "Disease forecasting.", PL SC 495: Integrated Crop Management, AFNS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, January 25 and 27, 2011. (Presentation)
  • Turkington, T.K. (2011). "The disease management messaging for blackleg and clubroot of canola.", Crop Production Issues Team (CPIT), Edmonton, AB, Canada, November 10, 2011. (Presentation)
  • Turkington, T.K. and O'Donovan, J.T. (2011). "Malt Barley Research Update: The impact of harvest management and seed source", Alberta Barley Commission, Rahr Malting, Inc. and Canadian Wheat Board meeting, Alberta Barley Commission Office, Calgary, AB, Canada, April 19, 2011. (Presentation)
  • Turkington, T.K., Klein-Gebbinck, H.W., Olfert, O.O., Weiss, L.M., Kriticos, D.J., Kutcher, H.R., Falk, K.C., and Strelkov, S.E. (2011). "Projected distribution and severity of clubroot of canola in the Canadian prairies.", Phytopathology, 101(6), pp. S179. (Abstract)
  • Turkington, T.K., Kutcher, H.R., Xi, K., Harker, K.N., O'Donovan, J.T., and Johnson, E.N. (2011). "The impact of fungicide and herbicide timing on barley leaf disease severity, weed management and crop productivity.", Phytopathology, 101(6), pp. S180. (Abstract)

2010

  • Blackshaw, R.E., Brandt, S.A., Johnson, E.N., Harker, K.N., O'Donovan, J.T., Turkington, T.K., and Kutcher, H.R. (2010). "Which crop inputs have the greatest impact on canola yield?", 2010 ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meeting, Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, CA, USA, October 31-November 4, 2010. (Abstract)
  • Kutcher, H.R., Dokken-Bouchard, F.L., Eynck, C., Turkington, T.K., Gossen, B.D., and Brandt, S.A. (2010). "Canola disease management and at bit of barley work.", Manitoba Agronomists 2010 Conference, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, December 14-15, 2010, Invited talk.
  • Kutcher, H.R., Dokken-Bouchard, F.L., Eynck, C., Turkington, T.K., Gossen, B.D., and Brandt, S.A. (2010). "Pest implications of intensive canola rotations.", Information Update for Ministry of Agriculture crop specialists, U of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan, SK, Canada, December 16, 2010.
  • Kutcher, H.R., Eynck, C., Turkington, T.K., Gossen, B.D., and Brandt, S.A. (2010). "Implications of Intensive Canola Rotations.", Canadian Weed Science Society 64th Annual Meeting, Delta Regina, Regina, SK, Canada, November 15-18, 2010, Invited Presentation.
  • Kutcher, H.R., Eynck, C., Turkington, T.K., Gossen, B.D., and Brandt, S.A. (2010). "Pest implications of intensive canola rotations.", 64th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Weed Science Society / Société canadienne de malherbologie, Delta Regina, Regina, SK, Canada, November 16-18, 2010. (Presentation)
  • Kutcher, H.R., Eynck, C., Turkington, T.K., Gossen, B.D., and Brandt, S.A. (2010). "Pest implications of intensive canola rotations.", Saskatchewan Plant Disease Committee meeting, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, December 10, 2010.
  • Rauhala, N.E. and Turkington, T.K. (2010). "2009 Barley disease survey in Central Alberta.", Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 90, pp. 58-59.

2009

  • Brandt, S.A., Harker, N., O'Donovan, J.T., Kutcher, H.R., Clayton, G.W., Lupwayi, N.Z., Turkington, T.K., Kapiniak, A., and Johnson, E.N. (2009). "The role of inputs in a canola-barley rotation: results of a 4-year study.", - 2008 Canola Trials: Studies conducted under the AAFC-Prairie Canola Agronomic Research (PCAR) Agreement, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)/Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada (AAC), pp. 91-142.
  • Harker, K.N., Brandt, S.A., Johnson, E.N., O'Donovan, J.T., Blackshaw, R.E., Turkington, T.K., and Kutcher, H.R. (2009). "Input reduction impacts on weeds and crops in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and canola (Brassica napus).", 49th Annual Meeting of the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA), Hilton in the Walt Disney World Resort, Orlando, FL, USA, February 9-13, 2009, Abstract #507, pp. 1. (Abstract)
  • Harker, K.N., Brandt, S.A., O'Donovan, J.T., Blackshaw, R.E., Johnson, E.N., Turkington, T.K., Kutcher, H.R., and Clayton, G.W. (2009). "Wild oat populations after four years in a low-input barley-canola rotation.", Canadian Weed Science Society 63rd Annual Meeting, Delta Prince Edward, Charlottetown, PEI, Canada, November 24-26, 2009.
  • Kirkham, C.L., Turkington, T.K., McLaren, D.L., Irvine, R.B., and Kutcher, H.R. (2009). "Fungicide reduces leaf spot severity and increases yield of winter wheat in western Canada.", Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 31(1), pp. 143-144. (Abstract)
  • Kirkham, C.L., Turkington, T.K., McLaren, D.L., Irvine, R.B., and Kutcher, H.R. (2009). "Management of leaf spotting diseases of winter wheat in western Canada.", Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 31(1), pp. 143-144. (Abstract)
  • Kutcher, H.R., Turkington, T.K., and Gossen, B.D. (2009). "Fungicide insensitivity in field crop pathogens.", 80th Annual General Meeting of the Saskatchewan Seed Growers Association: Crop Production Show, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, January 14, 2009, Invited presentation.
  • Kutcher, H.R., Turkington, T.K., and Gossen, B.D. (2009). "Integrating foliar fungicides into your disease control program for maximum benefit.", 80th Annual General Meeting of the Saskatchewan Seed Growers Association: Crop Production Show, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, January 14, 2009.
  • Owen, O., Weiss, R.M., Turkington, T.K., and Beckie, H.J. (2009). "Potential impact of climate change on crop pests.", Canadian Weed Science Society 63rd Annual Meeting, Delta Prince Edward, Charlottetown, PEI, Canada, November 24-26, 2009. (Abstract)
  • Rauhala, N.E. and Turkington, T.K. (2009). "2008 Barley Disease Survey in Central Alberta.", Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 89, pp. 53.
  • Tekauz, A. and Turkington, T.K. (2009). "Cereals (revised).", in Desjardins, M. (ed.) - Guidelines for the Control of Plant Diseases in Western Canada, October 2008, Western Committee on Plant Diseases, Canada, Chapter 1.
  • Turkington, T.K., McCallum, B.D., Fetch Jr., T.G., Xi, K., Kumar, K., Gaudet, D.A., Olfert, O.O., Weiss, R.M., and Soroka, J.J. (2009). "Wind trajectories and cereal rust risk, western Canada, 2007.", Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 31(1), pp. 147. (Abstract)
  • Turkington, T.K., Olfert, O.O., Weiss, R.M., Klein-Gebbinck, H.W., Kriticos, D.J., Kutcher, H.R., Falk, K.C., and Strelkov, S.E. (2009). "Potential distribution and severity of clubroot of canola in western Canada.", Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 31(1), pp. 147-148. (Abstract)
  • Turkington, T.K., Xi, K., and Kutcher, H.R. (2009). "Fungicide application decision making.", Agronomy Update Conference 2009, Lethbridge, AB, Canada, January 20-21, 2009.