Memorandum of Understanding
A Memorandum of Understanding is an arrangement between Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and a foreign governmental or international organization or its affiliated agency. It usually sets out the policy framework for scientific cooperation, and identifies priorities
Academic Exchange Agreement
An Academic Exchange Arrangement between Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and a foreign university or a research centre fosters academic and scientific cooperation, knowledge sharing and research activities of common interest. An academic exchange arrangement may be implemented through student and visiting researcher exchanges, joint research activities, or scientific documentation exchanges. Academic exchange arrangements may also be part of a memorandum of understanding.
A Collaborative Arrangement can be implemented between Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and a foreign public or private agency, or international organization. It usually sets out the policy framework for cooperation on a specific initiative.
Letter of Intent
A Letter of Intent is a document in which Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and a foreign or an international organization, either in the public or private sector, declare their intention to work together in an area or areas of common interest, such as research, development, or technology transfer. The declared intent could result in the signing of a wider Memorandum of Understanding, an Academic Exchange Arrangement or a Collaborative Arrangement. A Letter of Intent creates no legal or financial obligation on the part of the participants.
A Declaration is an explicit written, formal announcement that summarizes decisions made during a meeting of delegates from participating countries and/or international organizations that share mutual interests.
The 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties defines a treaty as "an international agreement concluded between States in written form and governed by international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more related instruments and whatever its particular designation."
In practice, treaties are concluded by the representatives of States who have received authorization through an "Instrument of Full Powers" to enter into agreements that are legally binding on those States. The Governor General, the Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs have the authority to sign treaties that have been authorized by Order-in-Council without having to provide an "Instrument of Full Powers" evidencing their authority. They are said to have "Full Powers". In Canada, these agreements fall within the purview of the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada.
Canada is a signatory of a number of international treaties related to agriculture, as well as science and technology.
- Canada Treaty Information
- The Canadian Trade Commissioner Service–Canada's science and technology policies and international relations
- Canada-European Union Science and Technology Agreement
- 1998 Amendment to Canada-European Union Science and Technology Agreement
- Canada-China Science and Technology Agreement
For further information about these cooperation instruments, please contact Shan He at the International Engagement Division of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada at AAFC.InternationalEngagement-EngagementInternational.AAC@AGR.GC.CA.
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