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Sector Trend Analysis - Salmon Trends in the European Union

June 2017

Sector Trend Analysis - Salmon Trends in the European Union (PDF Version, 740KB) | Help with downloadable formats

Contents

Executive summary

In 2016, eight of the ten largest import markets for salmon products were in the European Union (EU), including the largest, Sweden. Overall, European Union countries imported a grand total of US$8.7 billion in salmon products in 2016, with US$5.9 billion being imported from the world. Most of these imports originated in Norway, which has access to the European common market through treaties with the European Union (Global Trade Tracker, 2017).

When the Canada-EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) is implemented, EU tariffs on all Canadian salmon products will be eliminated. This will make Canadian salmon much more competitive in the EU, and Canadian producers will be well-positioned to expand their market share.

The majority of salmon imported into the European Union in 2016 was Atlantic or Danube salmon (HS code 030214). Atlantic salmon imports have increased over the last five years, while Pacific salmon imports have declined. Other Salmonidae imports have experienced ups and downs in recent years (Global Trade Tracker, 2017).

Total volume sales of fish in the European Union have remained essentially flat over the last five years, falling from 4.52 million tonnes to 4.46 million between 2012 and 2016. Despite experiencing a decline over the last few years, Spain remains the single largest market, followed by the United Kingdom. Hungary represents the fastest growing market, with compound annual growth of 6.12% over this period (Euromonitor International, 2017).

Note: For the purpose of this report “salmon products” were defined as 030213 (Pacific salmon), 030214 (Atlantic and Danube salmon) and 030219 (Salmonidae). HS codes 030212 represents a discontinued code for fresh salmon in general. The European Union is defined as Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Trade overview

Most EU trade is with other EU countries, and most of the rest is with countries that have unique economic arrangements such as Norway and the Faroe Islands. Norway is the primary supplier of salmon products to the European Union. For example, salmon imports to Sweden alone accounted for US$3.3 billion, with 99.9% of that total coming from Norway. Most of the rest was imported from Denmark.

Top 10 markets for salmon imports in the world, US$ million
Rank Country 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 CAGR 2012-16 Market share
N/A World total 7,771.4 10,193.1 10,680.2 9,471.9 11,764.3 10.92% N/A
1 Sweden 1,866.0 2,591.5 2,791.1 2,639.6 3,281.3 15.16% 27.89%
2 Denmark 655.1 901.1 1,006.7 829.2 1,029.0 11.95% 8.75%
3 United States 634.1 734.3 764.2 800.9 994.9 11.92% 8.46%
4 Poland 554.1 813.6 838.3 731.3 929.2 13.80% 7.90%
5 France 645.2 788.8 756.3 642.2 899.6 8.66% 7.65%
6 Germany 230.8 340.0 444.6 357.0 443.0 17.71% 3.77%
7 Brazil 231.3 368.7 429.4 375.6 438.1 17.31% 3.72%
8 United Kingdom 222.4 397.8 405.2 312.6 424.7 17.55% 3.61%
9 Spain 177.1 220.6 247.2 275.1 355.4 19.02% 3.02%
10 Italy 165.9 233.0 248.3 238.9 332.3 18.98% 2.83%
Source: Global Trade Tracker, 2017
Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)
Not applicable (N/A)
Top 10 salmon suppliers and their top 3 markets & market share in 2016 US$ million
Rank Country Export value Top markets and market share #1 Top markets and market share #2 Top markets and market share #3
N/A World total 11,764.3 Sweden 27.89% Denmark 8.75% United States 8.46%
1 Norway 6,619.2 Sweden 49.54% Denmark 14.68% France 8.93%
2 Sweden 1,621.5 Poland 43.53% Italy 14.82% Lithuania 14.11%
3 Canada 707.3 United States 87.99% China 7.11% Japan 2.42%
4 Chile 669.5 Brazil 65.43% China 21.05% Argentina 5.55%
5 Faroe Islands 615.7 United Kingdom 32.60% Russia 20.69% United States 18.84%
6 United Kingdom 424.9 France 47.93% United States 18.07% Poland 7.59%
7 Denmark 417.3 Spain 24.95% Germany 23.00% Italy 15.22%
8 United States 102.8 Canada 99.0% Italy 0.30% Hong Kong 0.19%
9 Germany 94.5 Lithuania 40.86% Poland 27.11% United Kingdom 5.79%
10 France 63.2 Spain 18.42% Belgium 17.21% United Kingdom 16.30%
Source: Global Trade Tracker, 2017
Not applicable (N/A)

Canada's performance

Canada is the third largest supplier of fresh and chilled salmon products in the world, with export sales of US$707 million in 2016. From 2012 to 2016, Canadian salmon exports fell slightly and then increased, such that the net compound annual growth rate for this period was 9.45%. Canada continues to be a net exporter of salmon products, with a trade surplus of US$589 million (Global Trade Tracker, 2017).

Canada's top export markets in 2016 were the United States, with export sales worth US$622 million, China, worth US$50 million, and Japan, worth US$17 million. Exports to the EU totalled US$2.6 million, of which the vast majority (2.5 million) was Pacific salmon. This stands in stark contrast to the international market: Canada exported US$663 million of Atlantic salmon in 2016, and US$44 million of Pacific salmon (Global Trade Tracker, 2017).

Currently, Canadian salmon products face a 2-15% tariff from the European Union, depending on species (Global Affairs Canada, 2016). Canadian producers will thus enjoy a similar relationship to the EU as Norway, Iceland and the Faroe Islands. Atlantic salmon in particular is expected to become much more competitive, and Canadian suppliers will have a net advantage compared to countries with no preferential agreements.

Canada is the twenty-second-largest supplier of fresh salmon products to the European Union, and the fourth-largest non-EU exporter. Only Norway, the Faroe Islands and Iceland exported more fresh and chilled salmon products to the EU in 2016, and each of these countries enjoys particular trade relationships with the EU: Norway and Iceland are part of the European Economic Area, while the Faroe Islands is a dependency of Denmark and therefore able to trade with Denmark's partners. More market opportunities lie in this market as salmon products have been identified as promising sectors for Canadian exporters based on the Strategic market assessment of the European Union report.

Top 10 suppliers of salmon products in the world, US$ million
Rank Country 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 CAGR 2012-16 Market share
N/A World total 7,771.4 10,193.1 10,680.2 9,471.9 11,764.3 10.92% N/A
1 Norway 4,726.4 6,184.2 6,272.8 5,328.5 6,619.2 8.78% 56.27%
2 Sweden 918.2 1,390.5 1,483.5 1,327.1 1,621.5 15.28% 13.78%
3 Canada 492.9 471.9 413.4 538.2 707.3 9.45% 6.01%
4 Chile 268.2 443.4 567.2 496.2 669.5 25.70% 5.69%
5 Faroe Islands 338.0 504.3 580.0 513.6 615.7 16.17% 5.23%
6 United Kingdom 298.1 419.0 498.5 392.5 424.9 9.26% 3.61%
7 Denmark 174.6 252.0 326.5 323.2 417.3 24.34% 3.55%
8 United States 78.7 86.6 64.9 47.4 102.8 6.89% 0.87%
9 Germany 59.4 68.3 72.6 55.4 94.5 12.30% 0.80%
10 France 31.8 34.9 54.9 55.3 63.2 18.73% 0.54%
Source: Global Trade Tracker, 2017
Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)
Not applicable (N/A)
Top 5 suppliers of fresh and chilled salmon products to the EU, US$ millions
Rank Country 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 CAGR 2012-15 Market share
N/A Total imports 3,570.2 4,890.9 5,230.2 4,623.2 5,941.6 13.58% N/A
1 Norway 3,324.4 4,547.5 4,924.7 4,427.4 5,615.5 14.00% 94.51%
2 Faroe Islands 210.4 303.2 261.3 160.9 258.0 5.22% 4.34%
3 Iceland 2.4 2.9 4.3 4.4 19.0 67.52% 0.32%
4 Canada 1.0 1.9 2.2 1.9 2.6 26.34% 0.04%
5 United States 3.6 2.0 0.7 0.8 0.7 −33.92% 0.01%
Source: Global Trade Tracker, 2017
Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)
Not applicable (N/A)
Fresh and chilled salmon supply gap, US$ millions
Supply 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 CAGR 2012-16
EU imports from the world 3,570.2 4,890.9 5,230.2 4,623.2 5,941.6 13.58%
EU imports from Canada 1.0 1.9 2.2 1.9 2.6 26.34%
Supply gap 3,569.2 4,889.0 5,228.0 4,621.3 5,939.0 13.58%
Source: Global Trade Tracker, 2017
Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)

Consumer and producer trends

Salmon products form a traditional part of many European diets. The majority of salmon consumed in Europe is farmed, and salmon is the most consumed farmed species in the EU as well as the third most consumed fish species overall (European Market Observatory for Fisheries and Aquaculture Products- EUMOFA, 2016). Per capita consumption in the EU totaled over 2 kilograms (kg) per person in 2014.

The EU achieved approximately 18% self-sufficiency in salmon products in 2014, meaning that 82% of demand had to be imported. Trade in salmon and salmonidae was the largest component of inter-EU trade, at 28% in 2015. In total, salmonid trade accounted for 6.4 billion euros. Salmon species alone accounted for 5.7 billion euros (EUMOFA, 2016).

Salmon in the European Union tends to be processed and consumed smoked, with France and Poland both producing large amounts of smoked salmon (EUMOFA, 2016). Nonetheless, fresh salmon is used in a variety of products.

Retail sales

Spain is the leading market for fresh fish and seafood in the EU. However, its market has declined by a compound annual rate of 2.57% since 2012, while the UK's market grew over the same period.

Historic total volume sales in tonnes (‘000) of fresh fish and seafood in the European Union by country, ‘000 tonnes
Country 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 CAGR 2012-16 Market share
Spain 1,299.8 1,261.9 1,215.7 1,195.9 1,171.4 −2.57% 20.77%
United Kingdom 681.9 701.4 724.8 739.5 752.2 2.48% 13.34%
Germany 670.6 639.1 682.9 648.6 635.5 −1.34% 11.27%
Italy 531.5 513.4 516.8 501.6 490.2 −2.00% 8.69%
Portugal 501.4 504.1 490.7 481.4 471.9 −1.50% 8.37%
Poland 296.7 303.2 306.7 313.1 323.5 2.19% 5.74%
France 321.7 317.6 317.4 313.8 312.8 −0.70% 5.55%
Netherlands 272.0 271.9 268.9 267.6 260.3 −1.09% 4.62%
Sweden 181.2 186.7 193.6 200.0 204.0 3.01% 3.62%
Belgium 191.5 196.4 194.0 191.2 191.1 −0.05% 3.39%
Greece 153.9 149.9 149.2 150.6 146.4 −1.24% 2.60%
Finland 120.3 120.2 119.0 118.4 115.0 −1.12% 2.04%
Romania 105.4 107.7 108.0 109.7 112.6 1.67% 2.00%
Denmark 86.4 86.5 85.4 85.1 82.9 −1.03% 1.47%
Austria 78.7 80.7 79.3 77.1 77.7 −0.32% 1.38%
Ireland 60.6 62.1 64.0 65.6 66.5 2.35% 1.18%
Czech Republic 55.5 57.0 57.7 59.0 60.9 2.35% 1.08%
Hungary 37.2 44.0 44.4 45.0 46.5 5.74% 0.82%
Bulgaria 27.6 28.1 28.2 28.6 29.4 1.59% 0.52%
Slovakia 19.8 19.9 20.2 20.5 21.3 1.84% 0.38%
Slovenia 20.0 19.5 19.5 19.8 19.4 −0.76% 0.34%
Luxembourg 13.0 13.3 13.6 13.5 13.5 0.95% 0.24%
Cyprus 8.0 8.2 8.1 8.3 8.4 1.23% 0.15%
Lithuania 8.1 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 −0.94% 0.14%
Croatia 6.6 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.5 −0.38% 0.12%
Latvia 6.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 −1.14% 0.11%
Estonia 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 0.00% 0.05%
Malta 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.99% 0.05%
Source: Euromonitor, 2017.
Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)

The total volume of fresh fish and seafood sales in the European Union witnessed a 0.33% compound annual decrease from 2012 to 2016. Through 2021, fish and seafood sales are forecasted to recover, with a CAGR of 0.5% expected (Euromonitor International, 2017). Fish has performed better than crustaceans or molluscs in recent years and will perform better through the end of the forecast period.

Forecast total volume sales in tonnes (‘000) of fresh fish and seafood in the European Union by country, ‘000 tonnes
Country 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 CAGR 2017-21 Market share
Spain 1,155.4 1,155.0 1,158.9 1,169.0 1,155.5 0.00% 20.27%
United Kingdom 760.4 767.2 773.7 779.2 783.9 0.76% 13.75%
Germany 626.3 619.5 614.4 610.9 608.7 −0.71% 10.68%
Italy 480.3 476.2 474.3 473.1 474.9 −0.28% 8.33%
Portugal 465.2 466.3 469.6 474.3 466.9 0.09% 8.19%
Poland 336.2 344.7 358.2 369.7 382.2 3.26% 6.70%
France 312.1 311.1 310.1 309.6 309.1 −0.24% 5.42%
Netherlands 256.5 254.1 252.7 251.9 251.9 −0.45% 4.42%
Sweden 207.5 211.3 215.2 218.5 221.7 1.67% 3.89%
Belgium 191.7 191.6 190.6 189.6 189.0 −0.35% 3.32%
Greece 142.6 140.5 139.1 137.9 137.6 −0.89% 2.41%
Finland 113.2 112.0 111.3 111.0 110.9 −0.51% 1.95%
Romania 116.2 118.5 122.4 125.5 128.9 2.63% 2.26%
Denmark 81.6 80.8 80.4 80.2 80.2 −0.43% 1.41%
Austria 78.2 78.3 78.1 77.8 77.6 −0.19% 1.36%
Ireland 67.0 67.3 67.6 67.8 67.9 0.33% 1.19%
Czech Republic 63.3 65.0 67.5 69.7 72.0 3.27% 1.26%
Hungary 48.2 49.3 51.0 52.5 54.1 2.93% 0.95%
Bulgaria 30.3 30.8 31.8 32.6 33.4 2.47% 0.59%
Slovakia 22.1 22.7 23.5 24.2 25.1 3.23% 0.44%
Slovenia 19.0 18.9 18.8 18.7 18.8 −0.26% 0.33%
Luxembourg 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.4 13.9 0.73% 0.24%
Cyprus 8.5 8.6 8.6 8.8 8.0 −1.50% 0.14%
Lithuania 7.9 7.9 8.2 8.3 8.4 1.55% 0.15%
Croatia 6.6 6.6 6.9 7.0 7.1 1.84% 0.12%
Latvia 6.4 6.4 6.6 6.6 6.7 1.15% 0.12%
Estonia 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 1.63% 0.06%
Malta 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 0.00% 0.05%
Source: Euromonitor, 2017.
Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)
Historic total volume sales in tonnes (‘000) of fresh fish and seafood in the European Union, ‘000 tonnes
Category 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 CAGR 2012-16 Market share
Fish and Seafood (total) 5,761.5 5,718.8 5,734.3 5,680.2 5,639.8 −0.53% N/A
Crustaceans 469.9 459.1 457.7 456.9 455.1 −0.80% 8.07%
Fish 4,519.3 4,504.3 4,520.6 4,484.6 4,459.7 −0.33% 79.08%
Molluscs 772.4 755.3 755.9 738.9 724.7 −1.58% 12.85%
Source: Euromonitor, 2017.
Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)
Not applicable (N/A)
Forecast total volume sales in tonnes (‘000) of fresh fish and seafood in the European Union, ‘000 tonnes
Category 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 CAGR 2017-21 Market share
Fish and Seafood (total) 5,621.9 5,629.8 5,658.8 5,693.6 5,700.3 0.35% N/A
Crustaceans 454.7 455.2 453.6 454.1 454.6 −0.01% 7.98%
Fish 4,451.0 4,466.4 4,501.1 4,535.2 4,540.6 0.50% 79.66%
Molluscs 716.2 707.7 703.8 704.2 705.3 −0.38% 12.37%
Source: Euromonitor, 2017.
Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)
Not applicable (N/A)

New product analysis

Over the last few years, numerous value-added packaged and fresh salmon products have been introduced in the European Union (EU). Mintel's Global New Products Database surveys new product releases in 20 EU countries: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Data was not available for Cyprus, Malta, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Luxembourg, Bulgaria or Slovenia.

Salmon is extensively used in pet food, especially cat food: of the 13,332 total products released in the 20 surveyed EU countries over the last ten years, 3,525 were new salmon pet food products. Over a third (38.9%) of these were wet cat food products, and a further 14.7% were dry cat food products (Mintel, 2017).

Among EU countries, France has seen the greatest number of new product releases in recent years (with 1,452 between 2012 and 2016 and 82 from January to April 2017). Germany and the United Kingdom come in second and third place, with 1,379 and 974 new products, respectively (Mintel, 2017).

Product Introductions containing salmon from 2006 to 2016
Year Number of products launched
2006 1,028
2007 1,185
2008 1,329
2009 1,150
2010 1,155
2011 1,078
2012 1,316
2013 1,016
2014 1,838
2015 1,320
2016 1,525
Source: Mintel, 2017.
New salmon product launches in the European Union, January 2012 to December 2016 - Yearly launch counts
Attribute 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Launches 1,316 1,016 1,838 1,320 1,525
Source: Mintel, 2017.
Note: ranking are based on 2012-16 data
Note: that the totals for ingredient counts will add to more than the total launches as products can use multiple ingredients.
New salmon product launches in the European Union, January 2012 to December 2016 - Yearly launch counts (Top five claims)
Claim 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Not specified 413 306 327 289 335
No additives/preservatives 229 190 375 269 341
Suitable for adult pets 116 92 445 216 320
Ethical - environmentally friendly package 157 177 251 258 273
Ethical - environmentally friendly product 141 167 249 215 281
Source: Mintel, 2017.
Note: ranking are based on 2012-16 data
Note: that the totals for ingredient counts will add to more than the total launches as products can use multiple ingredients.
New salmon product launches in the European Union, January 2012 to December 2016 - Yearly launch counts (Imported status)
Import status 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Imported 0 105 414 191 233
Not imported 0 86 215 211 265
Other 1,316 825 1,209 918 1,027
Source: Mintel, 2017.
Note: ranking are based on 2012-16 data
Note: that the totals for ingredient counts will add to more than the total launches as products can use multiple ingredients.
New salmon product launches in the European Union, January 2012 to December 2016 - Yearly launch counts (Top packaged types)
Packaged type 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tray 340 243 356 381 471
Flexible 161 148 225 173 205
Flexible stand-up pouch 149 124 161 190 222
Skinpack 4 89 246 234 234
Not specified 112 12 441 16 30
Source: Mintel, 2017.
Note: ranking are based on 2012-16 data
Note: that the totals for ingredient counts will add to more than the total launches as products can use multiple ingredients.
New salmon product launches in the European Union, January 2012 to December 2016 - Yearly launch counts (Launch types)
Launch type 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
New product 611 447 826 465 498
New variety/range extension 493 412 651 539 663
New packaging 145 111 253 242 253
Relaunch 19 36 82 62 90
New formulation 48 10 26 12 21
Source: Mintel, 2017.
Note: ranking are based on 2012-16 data
Note: that the totals for ingredient counts will add to more than the total launches as products can use multiple ingredients.
New salmon product launches in the European Union, January 2012 to December 2016 - Yearly launch counts (Top five companies)
Company 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Lidl 22 39 81 65 90
Nestlé Purina petcare 40 34 34 45 41
Marks & spencer 44 19 45 39 36
Mars 47 15 32 29 44
Interquell 1 2 144 1 2
Source: Mintel, 2017.
Note: ranking are based on 2012-16 data
Note: that the totals for ingredient counts will add to more than the total launches as products can use multiple ingredients.
New salmon product launches in the European Union, January 2012 to December 2016 - Yearly launch counts (Manufacturer type)
Manufacturer type 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Branded 824 612 1245 753 915
Private label 492 404 593 567 610
Source: Mintel, 2017.
Note: ranking are based on 2012-16 data
Note: that the totals for ingredient counts will add to more than the total launches as products can use multiple ingredients.

A majority of salmon products released in the European Union are new products or range extensions. Lidl is the leading company, while Nestlé Purina is responsible for the majority of new salmon pet food releases. New products tend to be branded: 3/5 of new product releases in 2016 were branded products. European consumers want ethically-sourced, environmentally friendly, healthy products, and this is reflected in the top claims.

New product examples, 2017

Source: Mintel, 2017.

Conclusion

Salmon products are popular throughout the European Union, particularly in Sweden, Spain and Denmark. Most European supply is provided by close partners such as Norway and the Faroe Islands, as these countries have unique trading arrangements with the EU. As trade barriers between Canada and the EU are reduced as a result of CETA, Canadian producers will be able to enjoy better opportunities in Europe and will be able to better compete with more established partners. Most Canadian salmon exported to the EU is Pacific, and the European market should provide more opportunities for Canadian Pacific salmon as integration between Canada and the EU increases. Canadian Atlantic salmon, however, is likely to become much more competitive as CETA enters into force.

While fresh fish volume sales have been relatively flat in the European Union over the last five years, salmon imports have been increasing. Over a thousand new salmon products are released in the EU each year, and many of these products are in high-value sectors such as pet foods and health and wellness.

For more information

International Trade Commissioners can provide Canadian industry with on-the-ground expertise regarding market potential, current conditions and local business contacts, and are an excellent point of contact for export advice.

For additional intelligence on this and other markets, the complete library of Global Analysis reports can be found under Statistics and Market Information at the following link, arranged by sector and region of interest: Agri-Food Trade Services for Exporters

For additional information on Seafood Expo Global (SEG) 2017, please contact:

Ben Berry, Deputy Director
Trade Show Strategy and Delivery
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
ben.berry@canada.ca

Resources

Sector Trend Analysis - Salmon Trends in the European Union
Global Analysis Report
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