Customized report service – Barbecue sauces and spices market in the United States and Europe

March 2019

Summary

In 2017, U.S. imports represented 10.7% of the global market, with a value of US$1.2 billion. The value of U.S. retail sales was US$25.2 billion in 2017. In the European market, the United Kingdom is the largest importer of sauces, dressing and condiments (7.9% of the global market), with an import value of US$0.9 billion. The value of retail sales for the British market was estimated at US$4.1 billion in 2017.

Consumers are moving away from sauces with traditional flavours and are seeking out spicier and more exotic varieties to enhance the flavour of their dishes. This trend has been observed in all sauce, dressing and condiment categories, where spiced table sauces, such as hot sauces and barbecue sauces, have seen increased sales. The global trend toward spicy flavours is consistent in both the U.S. and European markets.

In the British and French markets, Kraft Heinz has the greatest market share for barbecue sauces. In the U.S., Ken's Foods Inc. (46.8%), Kraft Heinz (13.7%) and McCormick & Company Inc. (6.3%) dominate the market.

Introduction

The United States is a major importer and consumer of sauces, dressing and condiments. In 2017, U.S. global imports represented a 10.7% market share, with an import value of US$1.2 billion. The value of retail sales was US$25.2 billion in 2017. Consumers' growing demand for products with unique flavours influences the growth of the barbecue sauce, dressing and condiment market. Changes in food consumption habits, supported by an increase in disposable income, stimulated the growth of this market.

In the European market, the United Kingdom is the largest importer of sauces, dressing and condiments, with 7.9% of the global market and an import value of US$870.6 million. The value of retail sales for the United Kingdom was estimated at US$4.1 billion in 2017. American cuisine has certainly influenced British consumers' choices of barbecue sauces. Barbecue sauce producers are emphasizing smoky flavours that use terms like "grilled" and "charred." 

France is the second largest European importer of sauces, dressing and condiments, with a 6.1% share of the global market and an import value of US$678.2 million in 2017. This can be explained by French consumers' interest in new spicy flavours, and the value of retail sales was US$3.3 billion in 2017.

Global share of sauce, dressing and condiment imports,  between 2013 and 2017, in percentage (%)
Country 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
United States 9.1 9.4 10.4 10.7 10.5
United Kingdom 8.1 8.5 8.3 7.8 7.7
Canada 5.8 6.8 7.5 7.3 6.8
France 6.4 6.5 6.2 6.3 6.0
Germany 5.8 6.0 5.6 5.5 5.4
Netherlands 3.3 3.7 3.4 4.1 3.9
Australia 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3
Japan 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.6
Hong Kong 2.3 3.3 2.5 2.6 2.5
Mexico 2.2 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.4

Source: Global Trade Tracker, 2018a

HS Code: 2103

Top 10 retail sales of sauces, dressing and condiments, historically between 2013 and 2017, in US$ millions
Country 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 CAGR* % 2013-2017
United States 22,931.4 23,397.9 23,960.1 24,688.4 25,160.8 2.3
Japan 17,502.6 17,504.2 17,602.5 17,468.9 17,283.6 −0.3
China 11,724.8 13,177.8 14,452.2 15,538.3 16,916.9 9.6
Germany 4,385.2 4,455.1 4,535.4 4,617.5 4,707.6 1.8
Brazil 2,833.1 3,129.1 3,471.7 3,812.6 4,133.5 9.9
United Kingdom 3,904.5 4,002.9 3,971.2 3,963.6 4,061.1 1.0
Russia 2,715.7 2,997.3 3,440.0 3,850.7 4,050.3 10.5
France 3,058.1 3,113.5 3,165.0 3,221.3 3,294.0 1.9
Mexico 2,113.3 2,242.0 2,383.9 2,536.9 2,789.9 7.2
Canada 2,429.2 2,476.6 2,522.7 2,566.8 2,627.6 2.0

Source: Euromonitor International, 2018b

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

Consumer profile

Consumer preferences are shifting toward hot and spicy options inspired by eastern cuisines, with products featuring new ingredients in response to strong consumer interest. Those in the 16-24 age category are generally much more receptive to ready-to-eat foods, and millennials are much more likely than any other generation to be interested in new flavours.

According to Euromonitor, American and European consumers continue to seek healthier food options. They demonstrate high demand for quality sauces, dressing and condiments with claims such as natural, organic, local and craft.

Market overview

United States

The United States is a net exporter of sauces, dressing and condiments, with a value of US$1.7 billion in 2017 and an import value of US$1.2 billion in 2017. Canada is the largest exporter to the United States for sauces, dressing and condiments, representing US$265.0 million. Mexico is the second, with a value of US$204.8 million, where spiced table sauces, such as hot sauces and barbecue sauces, dominate demand.

Top 5 exporters of sauces, dressing and condiments to the United States historically, between 2013 and 2017, in US$ millions
Country 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 CAGR* % 2013-2017
World 943.7 992.4 1,039.0 1,112.7 1,182.0 5.8
1. Canada 232.6 227.4 225.9 246.0 265.0 3.3
2. Mexico 145.4 168.8 176.9 193.8  204.8 8.9
3. Italy 126.0 139.1 145.9 157.1 170.1 7.8
4. China 68.2 708.1 81.0 89.6 106.3 11.7
5. Thailand 84.8 891.5 84.6 81.5 86.9 0.6

Source: Global Trade Tracker, 2018b

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

HS Code: 2103

France

France is a net importer of sauces, dressing and condiments, with US$678.1 million in 2017, compared to exports valuing US$303.0 million for the same year. The main exporter to France is Belgium, with US$132.3 million in 2017. Italy is the second, with US$111.1 million, explained primarily by pasta sauces. Canada is the 22nd exporter of sauces, dressing and condiments to France, with a value of US$1.5 million in 2017. 

Top 5 exporters of sauces, dressing and condiments to France historically, between 2013 and 2017, in US$ millions
Country 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 CAGR* % 2013-2017
World 670.1 725.7 624.9 652.8 678.1 0.3
1. Belgium 149.9 151.4 124.4 130.4 132.3 −3.1
2. Italy 94.4 124.5 104.1 108.9 111.1 4.2
3. Spain 130.3 133.2 108.0 106.5 106.9 −4.8
4. Germany 81.1 99.6 97.6 98.8 106.5 7.1
5. Netherlands 49.2 54.8 46.9 59.1 63.6 6.6
22. Canada 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.1 1.5 30.3

Source: Global Trade Tracker, 2018c

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

HS Code: 2103

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom is also a net importer of sauces, dressing and condiments, with US$870.6 million in 2017, compared to exports of US$428.4 million for the same year. The growth in exports can be explained by the broader selection of spicier and more exotic sauces. The top exporter to the United Kingdom is the Netherlands, with a value of US$210.3 million in 2017, but exports have decreased since 2013. Canada is the 34th exporter of sauces, dressing and condiments to the United Kingdom, with US$1.6 million.

Top 5 exporters of sauces, dressing and condiments to the United Kingdom historically, between 2013 and 2017, in US$ millions
Country 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 CAGR* % 2013-2017
World 846.7 894.2 832.2 811.7 870.6 0.7
1. Netherlands 273.5 255.9 229.5 214.3 210.3 −6.4
2. Germany 59.3 84.8 88.4 82.2 95.2 12.6
3. Italy 79.4 87.2 83.3 73.7 87.5 2.5
4. Spain 56.7 55.6 61.9 64.5 67.0 4.3
5. Poland 44.2 39.9 44.6 44.7 63.2 9.35
34. Canada 2.5 1.9 2.4 2.1 1.6 −10.6

Source: Global Trade Tracker, 2018d

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

HS Code: 2103

Retail

In the United States, young consumers are increasingly interested in exotic seasonings and sauces from different countries. Sauce, dressing and condiment producers are aware of this consumer preference. Therefore, we expect producers to develop new product varieties to pique consumer curiosity.

In addition, products with foreign and spicy flavours, such as herbs and spices, hot sauces and barbecue sauces, have seen strong growth in the historical period, with compound annual growth rates of 5.4%, 4.8% and 3.1%. In the selection, spices and herbs represented a value of US$3.3 billion in 2017.

Dips are the second category in terms of value, with US$3.8 billion in 2017, and recorded a CAGR of 4.1% between 2013 and 2017. This growth can be explained by the popularity of salsa, hummus and guacamole products (ethnic products).

Retail sales of sauces, dressing and condiments in the United States historically, between 2013 and 2017, in US$ millions
Categories 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 CAGR* % 2013-2017
Total 22,931.4 23,397.9 23,960.1 24,688.4 25,160.8 2.3
Dips 3,239.3 3,413.6 3,569.9 3,682.2 3,804.7 4.1
Spices and herbs 2,707.6 2,795.2 2,934.0 3,127.5 3,342.8 5.4
Hot sauces 681.3 697.0 731.1 766.1 768.8 3.1
Powdered sauces 698.6 718.8 720.9 734.3 756.3 2.0
Hot sauces 567.8 600.3 637.2 669.4 684.5 4.8
Others 380.0 373.4 372.7 370.9 374.8 −0.3

Source: Euromonitor International, 2017a

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

Retail sales of sauces, dressing and condiments in the United States, forecasted between 2018 and 2023, in US$ millions
Categories 2018[e] 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 CAGR* % 2018-2023
Total 25,942.4 26,845.0 27,801.5 28,744.7 29,701.9 30,663.5 3.4
Dips 4,047.6 4,277.7 4,517.2 4,766.9 5,028.3 5,297.5 5.5
Spices and herbs 3,501.0 3,647.1 3,818.8 3,998.8 4,188.4 4,384.0 4.6
Powdered sauces 786.2 800.1 818.1 824.9 851.6 867.9 2.0
Hot sauces 701.7 733.5 769.7 810.0 855.0 904.4 5.2
Barbecue sauces 76.4 769.6 781.5 798.5 818.3 839.7 1.9
Others 373.7 380.1 387.6 396.5 405.6 414.4 2.1

Source: Euromonitor International, 2017a

e: Estimate

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

France

The CAGR for sauces, dressing and condiments was 1.9% of the retail value between 2013 and 2017. The volume of retail sales between 2013 and 2017 saw slower growth because some categories, such as powdered sauces, suffered from maturity, which slowed the performance of the entire sector. French consumers are increasingly seeking healthier food products, but many products in this category have an unhealthy image because of their high fat, salt or sugar content.

Retail sales of sauces, dressing and condiments in France historically, between 2013 and 2017, in US$ millions
Categories 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 CAGR* % 2013-2017
Total 3,058.1 3,113.5 3,165.0 3,221.3 3,294.0 1.9
Spices and herbs 359.2 363.8 372.5 378.6 386.6 1.9
Dips 181.2 188.7 206.2 217.0 233.6 6.6
Barbecue sauces 37.0 38.9 40.8 42.5 44.7 4.9
Hot sauces 28.0 28.8 30.0 32.3 34.2 5.1
Powdered sauces 32.8 30.9 29.0 26.4 23.8 −7.7
Others 69.7 68.1 67.5 67.3 68.0 6.6

Source: Euromonitor International, 2017b

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

Hot sauces saw the fastest growth in terms of retail sales volumes of 6.0% in 2017, compared to 2016. (Euromonitor International, 2018a) Barbecue sauces and other table sauces also performed well. Consumers, especially young people, want to experiment with new flavour combinations and are attracted by spicy foods in general. These trends combined will benefit hot sauces and other table sauces. During the forecast period, hot sauces and barbecue sauces will record a CAGR of 5.5% and 3.9% for the same period.

Retail sales of sauces, dressing and condiments in France, forecasted between 2018 and 2023, in US$ millions
Categories 2018[e] 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 CAGR* % 2013-2017
Total 3,381.3 3,467.1 3,560.6 3,660.4 3,759.0 3,863.4 2.7
Spices and herbs 392.4 399.8 408.6 418.0 426.8 436.2 2.1
Dips 248.1 260.6 271.4 281.9 292.1 303.9 4.1
Barbecue sauces 46.8 48.7 50.8 52.8 54.9 56.7 3.9
Hot sauces 36.3 38.6 40.8 43.1 45.3 47.5 5.5
Powdered sauces 21.9 20.5 19.5 18.7 18.2 17.5 −4.4
Others 69.5 71.0 72.7 74.8 77.2 80.1 2.9

Source: Euromonitor International, 2017b

e: Estimate

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

United Kingdom

British consumers are also moving away from traditional sauces and are seeking out spicier and more exotic varieties to enhance the flavour of their dishes. This trend has been observed in spiced table sauces, such as hot sauces. 

The CAGR for sauces, dressing and condiments grew modestly by 1.0% between 2013 and 2017. Hot sauces saw the greatest increase in Compound Annual Growth Rate, with 9.1% between 2013 and 2017.

The spices and herbs category represents the highest value for sauces, dressing and condiments, with US$395.6 million in 2017. The volume of retail sales of herbs and spices also increased by 3.0% in 2017. (Mintel, 2018) British consumers are buying more spices to make homemade sauces.

Retail sales of sauces, dressing and condiments in the United Kingdom historically, between 2013 and 2017, in US$ millions
Category 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 CAGR* % 2013-2017
Total 3,904.5 4,002.9 3,971.2 3,963.6 4,061.1 1.0
Spices and herbs 334.4 351.4 361.1 378.3 395.6 4.3
Dips 285.0 301.7 313.8 323.5 337.1 4.3
Powdered sauces 145.7 148.9 150.7 155.2 161.9 2.7
Hot sauces 33.9 38.2 41.6 44.7 48.0 9.1
Barbecue sauces 33.7 32.5 34.7 35.9 37.9 3.0
Others 40.9 42.9 44.1 45.3 47.1 3.6

Source: Euromonitor International, 2017c

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

Barbecue sauces are expected to be the subcategory with the second-greatest Compound Annual Growth Rate. This category will reach a CAGR of 5.6% between 2018 and 2023, just behind hot sauces, with a CAGR of 8.5%. Retailers are focusing on strategies to maximize sales by creating more shelf space. The shelf space devoted to barbecue sauces increased by 5.0% in volume in 2017.

Retail sales of sauces, dressing and condiments in the United Kingdom, forecasted between 2018 and 2023, in US$ millions
Categories 2018[e] 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 CAGR* % 2013-2017
Total 4,174.8 4,288.9 4,406.6 4,522.4 4,639.0 4,759.5 2.7
Spices and herbs 412.3 432.2 452.4 472.2 492.1 512.1 4.4
Dips 350.8 363.7 376.5 388.6 400.0 411.5 3.2
Powdered sauces 169.2 176.0 182.8 189.5 196.0 202.6 3.7
Hot sauces 51.3 56.1 61.0 66.1 71.4 77.1 8.5
Barbecue sauces 40.9 43.8 46.3 48.8 51.2 53.6 5.6
Others 48.8 50.5 52.0 53.4 54.7 55.9 2.7

Source: Euromonitor International, 2017c

e: Estimate

*CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

Popular barbecue sauce flavours

In the U.S. market, the main flavours identified in the production of barbecue sauces were barbecue, honey, smoky, sweet/spicy and chili pepper.

Top 10 barbecue sauce flavours in the United States, historically between 2013 and 2017, in percentage share (%)
Flavours 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Barbecue 92.0 86.8 63.6 82.9 74.1
Honey 8.0 18.4 9.1 20.0 11.1
Smoky (hickory) 8.0 13.2 0.0 14.3 7.4
Sweet/spicy 4.0 0.0 4.5 2.9 7.4
Pepper/chili (chipotle) 0.0 2.6 4.5 0.0 7.4
Molasses 0.0 2.6 4.5 0.0 7.4
Brown sugar 4.0 5.3 0.0 5.7 3.7
Mustard 0.0 0.0 13.6 0.0 3.7
Spicy 0.0 13.2 4.5 11.4 0.0
Smoky 4.0 5.3 0.0 5.7 0.0
Source: Mintel, 2018a

In the British and French markets, barbecue, Korean, smoky, spicy and garlic flavours dominate the market. Consumers are behind this development, since they have developed a taste for spicy sauces and exotic flavours. The particularity of the European market is that barbecue flavour is often associated with American culinary culture.

Top 10 barbecue sauce flavours in France and the United Kingdom, historically between 2013 and 2017, in percentage share (%)
Flavours 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Barbecue 64.3 68.8 95.8 81.3 84.2
Korean 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.3 10.5
Smoky 0.0 6.3 20.8 6.3 5.3
Spicy 7.1 12.5 8.3 0.0 5.3
Garlic 7.1 6.3 0.0 0.0 5.3
Mild and smoky 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.3 0.0
Pepper 7.1 0.0 8.3 0.0 0.0
Bourbon 0.0 0.0 8.3 0.0 0.0
Marinade 0.0 6.3 8.3 0.0 0.0
Jerk 7.1 12.5 0.0 0.0 0.0
Source: Mintel, 2018b

Claims for barbecue sauces

American and European consumers are leading increasingly busy lives, with less time to cook at home, and many choose a product based on its ease of use and convenience. That is one of the reasons why barbecue sauces have the claim microwavable (36.8%) and easy to use (31.6%). Products without additives and allergens are also popular among consumers.

Claims on new barbecue sauces in the United States, in 2017, in percentage share (%)
Claims 2017
Microwavable 29.1
Low/no/reduced allergens 29.1
Gluten free 27.3
No additives/preservatives 27.3
Easy to use 23.6
Source: Mintel, 2018f
Claims on new barbecue sauces in France and the United Kingdom, in 2017, in percentage share (%)
Claims 2017
Ethical - environmentally friendly packaging 36.8
Easy to use 31.6
No additives/preservatives 21.1
Low/no/reduced allergens 21.1
Gluten free 21.1

Source: Mintel, 2018g

Companies

United States

The three companies with the largest market share in barbecue sauces were Ken's Foods Inc. (46.8%), Kraft Heinz (13.7%) and McCormick & Company Inc. (6.3%). While the barbecue sauce sector is dominated by American companies, some international companies maintain a strong presence in the sector. According to Euromonitor, companies like Baxter & Sons Ltd. and Kikkoman Foods all have strong positive growth, much of which is attributable to sales of foreign products.

Companies in the United States with the largest market share in barbecue sauces, in 2017, in percentage share (%)
Description of this image follows.
Description of above image
Company Market share (%)
Ken's Foods Inc 46.8
Kraft Heinz Co 13.7
Others 10.6
Private Label 8.9
McCormick & Co Inc. 6.3
Clorox Co, The 3.4
Baxter & Sons Ltd 2.5
Famous Dave's of America Inc 2.3
ConAgra Brands Inc 3.2

Source: Euromonitor International, 2017a

France

Most of the French market is dominated by multinationals and foreign companies. International producers are able to offer a wide range of products, particularly exotic flavours that have become popular during the review period.

Companies in France with the largest market share in barbecue sauces, in 2017 in percentage share (%)
Description of this image follows.
Description of above image
Company Market share (%)
Unilever Group 13
Others 14
Private Label 23.9
Kraft Heinz Co 49.1

Source: Euromonitor International, 2017b

United Kingdom

In the British market, Kraft Heinz has the largest market share for barbecue sauces at 41.4%. In second is Associated British Foods plc, with a market share of 15.0%. Like the French market, the British market is dominated by multinationals, primarily Kraft Heinz Co.

Companies in the United Kingdom with the largest market share in barbecue sauces, in 2017, in percentage share (%)
Description of this image follows.
Description of above image
Company Market share (%)
Kraft Heinz Co 41.4
Private Label 28.9
Associated British Foods Plc 15
Others 9.5
McCormick & Co Inc 5.2

Source: Euromonitor International, 2017c

Product examples

Examples of barbecue sauces

Real American Barbecue Sauce (United Kingdom)

Real American Barbecue Sauce Source: Mintel, 2018

Company Fremont
Importer Agidra
Brand Mississippi
Category Sauces and seasonings
Subcategory Table sauces
Country France
Store name Grand Frais
Store address Villefranche Sur Saône 69400
Launch date December 2017
Launch type New variety
Price in US dollars 3.56

Product description: Mississippi American Barbecue Sauce is described as sweet and mild. This certified‑Kosher product is sold in a 510-gram (g) bottle, with the national "best taste" award medal.

Ingredients (on package): Tomato concentrate (55%), fructose syrup, vinegar, salt, powdered onion, liquid smoke, colouring (E150d) and spices (contains mustard).

Chipotle Craft Beer BBQ Sauce (United States)

Chipotle Craft Beer BBQ Sauce Source: Mintel, 2018

Company Better Living Brands
Brand Signature Select
Category Sauces and seasonings
Subcategory Table sauces
Country United States
Import status Imported product
Store name Vons
Distribution type Supermarket
Store address Corona 92879
Launch date July 2018
Launch type New variety
Price in local currency $3.00

Product description: Signature Select Chipotle Craft Beer BBQ Sauce is described as a well‑balanced and fiery sauce that pairs well with beef, pork, chicken and fish. The product is sold in a 15.7-ounce (oz.) bottle with the Smartlabel logo and a QR code.

Ingredients (on package): Water, brown sugar, glucose, apple cider vinegar, tomato paste, beer*, blackstrap molasses, modified corn starch, canola oil, salt, concentrated lemon juice, green bell pepper, chili powder (chipotle powder), ancho powder, mustard flour, spice, dried onion, dried garlic, smoke flavour, natural flavour, xanthan gum, sodium benzoate (preservative) and citric acid.

Korean BBQ Sauce (France)

Korean BBQ Sauce Source: Mintel, 2018

Company Confluences
Brand Mr. Min
Category Sauces and seasonings
Subcategory Table sauces
Country France
Import status Imported product
Store name Carrefour
Store address Cesson Sevigne 35510
Launch date October 2018
Launch type New packaging
Price in US dollars 3.47

Product description: Mr. Min Korean BBQ Sauce was repackaged in a 260 g bottle with a QR code. This gluten-free product is made with a traditional Korean recipe and is considered ideal for spicing up barbecued meats or as a condiment to give an authentic Korean flavour to your meal.

Ingredients (on package): Water, high fructose corn syrup, soybean sauce (soybean), starch syrup, sugar, glucose, onion, monosodium L-glutamate (E621), acetylated distarch adipate (E1422), garlic, salt, sesame, caramel colour (E150C), black pepper, citric acid (E330), cinnamon powder, bay leaf powder, xanthan gum (E415), oregano powder and parsley.

Examples of grilling spices

Hot & Smokey Chipotle

Hot and Smokey Chipotle Source: Mintel, 2018

Company Sainsbury's
Brand Sainsbury's
Category Sauces and seasonings
Subcategory Seasonings
Country United Kingdom
Store name Sainsbury's
Distribution type Supermarket
Store address London SW18 4AD
Launch date December 2016
Launch type New packaging
Price in US dollars 3.12

Product description: This hot and smoky chili and garlic seasoning can be ground over potato wedges for a smoky barbecue flavour. It has a spice level of four and is sold in a recyclable 45 g package.

Ingredients (on package): Chili flakes (23%), black pepper, chipotle chili flakes (20%), dried onion, sea salt, dried garlic (7%).

Barbecue spices

Barbecue spices Source: Mintel, 2018

Company C.M.D.
Brand La Conquête des Saveurs
Category Sauces and seasonings
Subcategory Seasonings
Country France
Import status Imported product
Store name Géant Casino
Distribution type Mass distribution
Store address St. Gregoire 35760
Launch date July 2018
Launch type New variety/line extension
Price in US dollars 1.99

Product description: The product can be used for cooking on the barbecue or over a fire and is sold in a 65 g package.

Ingredients (on package): Chilies, herbes de Provence, garlic, salt, coriander and pepper.

Conclusion

Table sauces combining a strong heritage, unique production methods and quality ingredients should continue to gain favour when consumers are looking to buy sauces and seasonings. The development of new, spicier flavours will result in growing demand for barbecue sauces, and the market should see positive growth over the forecast period.

Resources

Customized report service – Barbecue sauces and spices market in the United States and Europe
Global Analysis Report

Prepared by: Nesrine Benmoussa, Co-op Student

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