Statistical Overview of the Canadian Ornamental Industry – 2016

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Overview

The ornamental sector includes the floriculture (primarily cut flowers and potted plants), nursery, Christmas tree, and turf sod industries. In 2016 the sector generated farm gate sales of $2.3 billion, including resales by producers. Due to changes in the Statistics Canada methodology for all 2016 surveys related to the nursery sectorFootnote 1, figures discussed in this report are not directly comparable to any information gathered in prior years.

Using the new methodology, the 2016 Census of Agriculture number of farms in Canada reporting any ornamental production declined by 20.5% from the 2011 figure. The average area per Canadian ornamental farm has risen over the past five years by 7.3%. Between 2015 and 2016, the area of production of greenhouse flowers and plants fell by 9.8%, with British Columbia representing the largest drop, losing 31.7% of its floriculture-producing area. Ontario remains the leading province in production area for greenhouse flowers and plants, accounting for 50.4% of total Canadian production area.

Floriculture remained the largest revenue generating sub-sector, accounting for 65.9% of total sales. Floriculture sales increased to $1.51 billion in 2016, up 0.9% from 2015 and 10.9% from 2012. Ontario, British Columbia and Quebec accounted for the majority of Canada's total floriculture sales, with Ontario once again contributing more than half of Canadian sales at 52.5%. Nursery sales totaled $635.6 million in 2016, accounting for 27.8% of total ornamental sales. By province, Ontario accounted for 44.6% of total nursery sales in 2016, followed by British Columbia and Quebec with 29.5% and 13.7%, respectively. Turf sod sales totaled $147.4 million in 2016, a 5% decline from 2015. The sub-sector accounts for 6.3% of total ornamental sales. Ontario led the country in sod sales at 38.7%, while many provinces' 2016 sales were suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Ornamental products are distributed through multiple channels. Mass-market chain stores are the primary distributers of floriculture products, accounting for 31.5% of total sales in 2016. However, landscape contractors and garden centres are the two largest distribution channels specifically for nursery products, making up 26.3% and 19.6% of total sales, respectively.

In 2016, 30,405 people were directly employed in the production of ornamental products. Fifty-six percent of these employees worked in specialized greenhouse flower and plant operations, 38.4% in nurseries, and 5.2% on sod farms. Due to the seasonal nature of the ornamental business, each of the sub-sectors employs more seasonal labour than permanent labour. Seasonal employees are defined as employees who work less than eight months during the year. Sixty-three percent of greenhouse flower and plant production employees were seasonal workers, while 71.0% of sod workers and 68.5% of nursery workers fell into the seasonal category.

Canada's largest ornamental trade partner continues to be the United States, accounting for 99.1% of exports and 46.2% of imports in the sector. Canadian worldwide exports totaled $477 million in 2016, and imports amounted to $498 million, generating a net negative trade balance of approximately $21 million. Canada's exports of floriculture and nursery products and Christmas trees place it 8th in the world, gaining two places from its 10th-place ranking in 2015, with a 1.9% share of world exports, which totaled $25.87 billion in 2016.

1. Production

1.1. Number of Canadian ornamental farms[1] by sub-sector

2011 2016 Change
Floriculture[2] 3,016 2,403 −20.3%
Nursery[3] 3,438 2,780 −19.1%
Sod 375 265 −29.3%
Christmas trees 2,381 1,872 −21.4%
Total 9,210 7,320 −20.5%

Notes:

  1. Number of farms includes all farms reported to be growing floriculture, nursery, sod and Christmas trees, and not exclusively farms in which ornamental production represents 50% or more of total farm cash receipts.
  2. Greenhouse flowers. Note that in 2011, some respondents incorrectly reported "vegetable plants for sale" resulting in over-reporting of area in "Greenhouse flowers" and "Greenhouse vegetables".
  3. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 Census of Agriculture and are therefore not included. Prior censuses may have included their production in "total area of nursery products grown for sale".

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Agriculture (CANSIM Tables 004-0216, 004-0217, 004-0218)

1.2. Area of Canadian ornamental farms by sub-sector (hectares)

2011 2016 Change
Floriculture 859 793 −7.7%
Nursery[1] 24,146 19,859 −17.8%
Sod 25,684 22,953 −10.6%
Christmas trees 28,315 23,787 −16.0%
Total 79,004 67,392 −14.7%

Note:
1. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 Census of Agriculture and are therefore not included. Prior censuses may have included their production in "total area of nursery products grown for sale".

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Agriculture (CANSIM Tables 004-0216, 004-0217, 004-0218)

1.3. Area per farm (average) of Canadian ornamental farms by sub-sector (hectares)

2011 2016 Change
Floriculture 0.28 0.33 15.8%
Nursery[1] 7.02 7.14 1.7%
Sod 68.49 86.62 26.5%
Christmas trees 11.89 12.71 6.9%
Total 8.58 9.21 7.3%

Note:
1. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 Census of Agriculture and are therefore not included. Prior censuses may have included their production in "total area of nursery products grown for sale".

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Agriculture (CANSIM Tables 004-0216, 004-0217, 004-0218)

1.4. Operations, area and months of operation for specialized greenhouse flowers and plants

Total greenhouse operations (number) Total greenhouse area (square metres) Total months of operation (number)
2012 1,910 8,167,239 13,775
2013 1,885 8,158,263 18,927
2014 1,855 7,899,306 18,285
2015 1,872 7,996,411 17,149
2016 1,744 7,217,110 15,292
Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0047)

1.5. Total area for production of specialized greenhouse flowers and plants by province (square metres)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Atlantic provinces 279,331 281,051 299,056 280,200 248,600
Quebec 1,181,310 1,150,780 1,233,622 1,220,000 1,213,584
Ontario 3,852,551 3,857,742 3,509,556 3,656,450 3,636,798
Prairie provinces 876,504 865,605 862,061 863,730 767,503
British Columbia 1,977,543 2,003,085 1,995,010 1,976,030 1,350,627
Canada 8,167,239 8,158,263 7,899,306 7,996,411 7,217,110
Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0047)

1.6. Production of greenhouse flowers and plants by category (number in millions)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Potted plants[1] 212.2 199.8 191.9 217.2 216.2
Cuttings[1] 94.9 92.1 97.2 98.3 89.7
Cut flowers 321.1 332.9 317.6 314.3 306.3
Bedding plants, ornamental 543.8 543 527.7 418.3 467.2
Total 1172.0 1167.7 1134.3 1048.1 1079.4

Note:
1. Excludes tree seedling plants (production and sales).

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0048)

1.7. Production of potted plants by variety (number in millions)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Azaleas, indoor 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.1 0.9
Lilies, indoor 4.1 5.1 3.3 5.8 3.5
Poinsettias, indoor 7.8 8.5 7.1 7.2 6.5
African violets, indoor F F 5.7 8.9 7.3
Tropical foliage and green plants 9.7 10.2 8.1 11.4 11.4
Gerberas, indoor 2.7 3.6 4.7 5.0 4.2
Miniature roses, indoor 9.7 9.4 9.6 10.2 10.3
Orchids, indoor F 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.1
Kalanchoe, indoor F 6.5 7.3 8.5 8.0
Chrysanthemums, indoor 5.8 8.2 7.9 7.5 6.3
Primula, indoor 2.2 2.3 1.9 2.4 3.1
Cyclamen, indoor F 2.0 1.8 2.3 1.9
Tulips, indoor 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.3 2.1
Indoor hanging pots F 0.9 0.9 1.5 1.3
Other indoor pots 20.5 16.6 17.3 17.9 15.4
Begonias, outdoor 6.8 6.9 6.3 6.9 6.7
Chrysanthemums, outdoor 4.7 4.1 3.9 4.0 3.6
Geraniums, outdoor 18.5 18.7 19.1 18.8 16.5
Impatiens, outdoor 6.4 5.9 3.6 4.1 3.9
Petunias, outdoor 9.8 8.9 7.3 8.4 6.9
Herbaceous perennials, outdoor 11.5 12.1 11.0 11.7 8.1
Argyranthemum, outdoor 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3
Outdoor hanging pots 11.0 12.1 12.4 12.9 12.5
Other outdoor pots 51.8 42.9 46.3 54.6 48.9
Total potted plants[1] 212.2 199.8 191.9 217.2 216.2

Note:
1. Data may not add up as some data were suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements.

F: Too unreliable to be published.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0049)

1.8. Production of outdoor potted plants by variety[1] (number in millions)

2016
Calibrachoas, outdoor 2.6
Dahlia, outdoor 1.0
Pansies, outdoor 1.5
Rudbeckia, outdoor 0.1
Heliopsis, outdoor 0.1
Verbenas, outdoor 0.8
Zinnia, outdoor 0.3
Herb plants, outdoor 10.7
Vegetable plants, outdoor 7.2
Total potted plants 24.4

Note:
1. The potted plant varieties in this table are additions to the 2016 survey and have not been previously tracked by Statistics Canada.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0049)

1.9. Production of cuttings by variety (number in millions)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Chysanthemums, cuttings 7.7 2.7 4.7 3.9 3.9
Poinsettias, cuttings F 2.9 3.9 4.5 5.4
Geraniums, cuttings 12.8 7.9 11.0 13.7 14.1
Impatiens, cuttings 4.1 3.1 4.4 4.6 4.8
Other cuttings 66.2 75.4 73.2 71.7 61.5
Total cuttings 94.9 92.1 97.2 98.3 89.7

Note:

F: Too unreliable to be published.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0049)

1.10. Production of cut flowers[1] by variety (number in millions)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Alstroemeria, stems F 13.2 10.7 12.2 9.0
Chrysanthemums, stems F 34.9 32.5 33.6 25.4
Daffodils, stems 3.7 4.1 6.6 4.1 3.7
Freesia, stems F F 4.6 4.6 5.8
Gerberas, stems 75.1 78.6 74.3 75.2 87.8
Iris, stems 2.7 2.4 4.6 3.2 x
Roses, stems 8.4 8.3 5.9 5.4 x
Snapdragons, stems F 19.3 13.8 12.1 23.8
Tulips, stems F 128.7 117.6 120.0 111.2
Lilies, stems 14.5 13.3 9.2 9.7 11.6
Lisianthus, stems F F 2.5 5.5 5.8
Other cut flowers F 22.1 35.3 28.7 16.5
Total cut flowers[2] 321.1 332.9 317.6 314.3 306.3

Notes:

  1. Includes flowers grown, or given some cultural treatment, and sold
  2. Data may not add up as some data were suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements

x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

F: Too unreliable to be published.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0049)

1.11. Total sod area by province (hectares)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 289 251 233 276 x
Prince Edward Island F x x x x
Nova Scotia 963 1,023 1,085 1,142 999
New Brunswick 384 335 318 x 378
Quebec 4,903 4,825 4,306 4,927 4,821
Ontario 10,750 11,051 11,703 9,232 9,105
Manitoba 1,360 x x 1,182 1,185
Saskatchewan 506 569 614 654 613
Alberta 3,790 4,495 4,234 4,061 4,065
British Columbia 749 781 822 833 811
Canada 23,785 24,778 18,527 14,992 22,282

Notes:

F: Too unreliable to be published.

x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0060)

1.12. Sod operations[1] by province (number)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 20 20 15 20 20
Prince Edward Island 5 5 5 2 x
Nova Scotia 10 10 10 10 9
New Brunswick 5 4 4 8 x
Quebec 50 45 40 58 60
Ontario 65 65 65 65 65
Manitoba 10 10 10 10 10
Saskatchewan 5 5 5 9 9
Alberta 20 25 25 25 26
British Columbia 25 25 25 30 30
Canada 215 214 204 153 239

Note:
1. Firms that only distribute sod or nursery stock, or just landscape and lay sod are excluded.

x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0060)

1.13. Christmas tree production by province (number of farms)

2011 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 19 11
Prince Edward Island 20 18
Nova Scotia 447 319
New Brunswick 157 97
Quebec 379 343
Ontario 647 530
Manitoba 60 39
Saskatchewan 41 31
Alberta 105 83
British Columbia 506 401
Canada 2,381 1,872
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Agriculture (CANSIM Table 004-0218)

1.14. Christmas tree production by province (hectares)

2011 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 116 71
Prince Edward Island 140 134
Nova Scotia 7,663 6,179
New Brunswick 2,131 1,785
Quebec 8,347 8,255
Ontario 5,955 4,456
Manitoba 472 178
Saskatchewan 305 265
Alberta 565 449
British Columbia 2,621 2,016
Canada 28,315 23,787
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Agriculture (CANSIM Table 004-0218)

2. Sales and resales

2.1. Ornamental sales and resales by sub-sector (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Greenhouse flower and plants 1,358.9 1,403.6 1,443.6 1,492.7 1,506.8
Nursery[1] 692.4 680.4 688.3 719.0 635.6
Sod 154.5 152.4 118.2 103.1 144.7
Total 2,205.7 2,236.4 2,250.1 2,314.8 2,287.1

Note:
1. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 survey. Prior surveys have included their production, affecting also nursery area, production, sales, labour and expenses variables.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Tables 001-0051, 001-0058, 001-0060)

2.2. Greenhouse flower and plant sales by category (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Potted plants[1] 653.4 677.5 706.4 785.6 809.6
Cuttings[1] 54.1 51.8 51.6 49.9 44.2
Cut flowers 143.4 149.6 150.1 146.5 140.0
Bedding plants, ornamental 204.7 195.6 190.9 166.8 190.9
Total 1,055.6 1,074.6 1,098.8 1,148.8 1,184.6

Note:
1. Excludes tree seedling plants (production and sales).

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0048)

2.3. Greenhouse flower and plant sales and resales[1] by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 9.1 10.0 9.9 8.1 8.0
Prince Edward Island 4.8 5.1 5.3 4.9 5.2
Nova Scotia 14.2 13.4 16.0 13.4 17.0
New Brunswick F 32.3 34.6 37.9 x
Quebec 156.4 161.1 161.5 163.8 176.6
Ontario 709.9 734.6 757.6 782.4 790.5
Manitoba 34.0 34.5 34.4 F 32.1
Saskatchewan 16.3 17.5 17.2 16.0 13.2
Alberta 72.8 71.8 85.9 78.9 76.1
British Columbia 303.9 323.3 321.1 352.8 343.8
Canada 1,358.9 1,403.6 1,443.6 1,492.7 1,506.8

Notes:
1. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 survey. Prior surveys have included their production, affecting also greenhouse area, production, sales, labour and expenses variables.

F: Too unreliable to be published.

x: Supressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0051)

2.4. Greenhouse flower and plant sales and resales by province – percent share, 2016

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Description of above image
Greenhouse flower and plant sales by province – percent share
Ontario 52%
British Columbia 24%
Quebec 12%
Alberta 5%
New Brunswick 2%
Others 6%

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0051)

2.5. Nursery stock[1] sales and resales[2] by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 0.7 0.7 0.6 x x
Prince Edward Island x 0.8 0.6 x x
Nova Scotia 14.4 12.4 10.6 12.1 10.6
New Brunswick x 4.1 4.1 4.4 2.4
Quebec 94.8 96.5 97.8 100.9 87.0
Ontario 284.3 281.3 290.9 294.4 283.3
Manitoba 18.6 15.6 13.8 13.8 14.2
Saskatchewan 9.1 8.1 6.8 8.1 5.1
Alberta 48.4 42.9 48.0 52.4 44.0
British Columbia 218.3 217.9 215.1 231.9 187.8
Canada 692.4 680.4 688.3 719.0 635.6

Notes:

  1. The term "nursery stock" covers a diverse range of non-edible, living plant material grown in field or in containers and sold with its root system intact. Nursery stock includes annual and perennial plants ranging from woody plants (for example, trees, shrubs and rose bushes) to bedding plants and potted outdoor flowers. "Nursery stock" excludes Christmas trees and various inputs such as growing medium (for example, peat moss and top soil), fertilizer and pesticides. Since 2008, nursery and sod operating expenses are separated.
  2. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 survey. Prior surveys have included their production, affecting also greenhouse area, production, sales, labour and expenses variables.

x: Supressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0051)

2.6. Nursery stock sales and resales by province – percentage share, 2016

Description of this image follows.
Description of above image
Nursery stock sales by province – percentage share
Ontario 45%
British Columbia 29%
Quebec 14%
Alberta 7%
Others 5%

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0058)

2.7. Nursery stock resales[1] by province (millions of Canadians dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 0.5 x x x 0.3
Prince Edward Island x x x x x
Nova Scotia 1.7 2.5 2.1 1.2 0.8
New Brunswick x 1.3 F 1.0 1.0
Quebec 16.6 17.5 16.0 15.0 16.5
Ontario 60.7 67.6 71.4 72.3 81.3
Manitoba 3.6 3.0 2.0 2.6 2.2
Saskatchewan 1.5 2.2 1.8 2.3 1.8
Alberta 8.2 7.6 7.3 10.5 8.8
British Columbia 30.4 28.1 31.4 29.2 27.1
Canada[2] 124.1 130.1 133.3 134.5 139.9

Notes:

  1. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 survey. Prior surveys have included their production, affecting also greenhouse area, production, sales, labour and expenses variables.
  2. Data may not add up as some data was suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements.

F: Too unreliable to be published.

x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0058)

2.8. Sod sales and resales by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 3.1 2.4 2.9 2.8 2.5
Prince Edward Island F x x x x
Nova Scotia 6.1 5.1 4.7 3.8 3.5
New Brunswick 2.3 2.2 1.9 x x
Quebec 37.3 33.8 30.8 32.1 30.8
Ontario 62.5 60.7 67.8 60.3 56.9
Manitoba 3.7 x x 7.4 6.5
Saskatchewan 4.9 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.1
Alberta 23.6 29.2 23.5 28.1 28.6
British Columbia 10.4 10.4 9.6 10.7 11.4
Canada[1] 161.1 157.3 161.7 155.1 147.4

Note:
1. Data may not add up as some data was suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements.

F: Too unreliable to be published.

x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0060)

3. Channels of distribution

3.1. Channels of distribution for flowers and plant sales and resales (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Mass market chain stores 405.5 425.1 447.3 447.9 474.5
Domestic wholesalers 287.7 305.4 269.4 286.3 278.8
Direct sales to the public[1] 234.0 220.9 221.9 214.1 223.1
Retail florists 177.5 174.0 184.4 190.0 170.8
Other greenhouses 86.2 96.8 137.1 166.2 161.0
Exported 121.1 128.8 118.5 122.0 144.4
Government and public agencies 13.1 11.9 20.4 20.1 13.1
Other channels 33.8 40.6 44.7 46.0 41.2
Total sales[2] 1,358.9 1,403.6 1,443.6 1,492.7 1,506.8

Notes:

  1. Includes roadside stands and owner-operated retail outlets.
  2. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 survey. Prior surveys have included their production, affecting also greenhouse area, production, sales, labour and expenses variables.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0050)

3.2. Channels of distribution for flowers and plant sales and resales, 2012–2016

Description of this image follows.
Description of above image

Description of this image may be found in the preceding section 3.1.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0050)

3.3. Channels of distribution for nursery product sales and resales (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Landscape contractors 168.9 154.1 159.0 162.0 167.2
Garden centres 131.4 123.5 130.8 133.6 124.6
Mass market chain stores 93.7 95.7 103.6 117.5 103.2
Other growers 50.9 54.6 60.9 66.2 75.8
Direct sales to the public[1] 95.5 85.2 74.8 74.3 70.7
Government and public agencies 51.9 56.3 49.5 52.2 29.8
Fruit growers F 29.4 31.3 32.4 22.1
Exported 13.5 14.9 16.5 28.1 21.2
Other channels 56.3 66.7 61.9 52.8 21.1
Total sales[2] 692.4 680.4 688.3 719.0 635.6

Notes:

  1. Includes roadside stands and owner-operated retail outlets.
  2. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 survey. Prior surveys have included their production, affecting also greenhouse area, production, sales, labour and expenses variables.

F: Too unreliable to be published.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0059)

3.4. Channels of distribution for nursery product sales and resales, 2012–2016

Description of this image follows.
Description of above image

Description of this image may be found in the preceding section 3.3.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0059)

4. Operating expenses

4.1. Greenhouse flower and plant producers' operating expenses by category (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Gross yearly payroll[1] 330.5 331.9 338.7 346.1 318.8
Plant material purchases for growing on[2] 209.1 213.7 211.1 221.2 213.4
Plant material purchases for resale[2] 94.9 131.4 135.0 127.5 112.2
Electricity[3] 26.2 25.7 26.9 27.7 28.5
Fuel 64.0 58.2 66.0 61.5 54.5
Other crop expenses[4] 110.4 100.7 107.7 124.4 139.7
Other operating expenses[5] 205.7 218.3 215.4 211.8 205.5
Total operating expenses[6][7] 1,040.8 1,079.9 1,100.8 1,120.0 1,072.6

Notes:

  1. Includes seasonal and permanent labour.
  2. Includes value of flowers, plants, cuttings, seedlings, seeds and bulbs purchased (before sales tax).
  3. Electricity expenses include electricity for lighting, airflow fans, and heating.
  4. Includes fertilizer, pesticides, pollination, irrigation, containers, packaging, bioprograms, and growing mediums such as soil, peat moss, vermiculite, perlite, sand, Styrofoam and sawdust.
  5. Includes interest, land taxes, insurance, advertising, repairs to farm buildings, machinery, agricultural equipment and vehicles, contract work, and telephone and telecommunications services.
  6. This category excludes mixed operations (vegetables, flowers, and plants).
  7. Operations which exclusively produce tree seedlings for reforestation are outside the scope of the 2016 survey. Prior surveys have included their production, affecting also greenhouse area, production, sales, labour and expenses variables.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0053)

4.2. Greenhouse flower and plant producers' operating expenses by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Atlantic provinces 54.6 47.0 53.8 55.0 50.9
Quebec 109.5 118.6 124.1 114.1 120.0
Ontario 509.8 556.0 566.5 597.8 599.4
Prairie provinces 102.2 105.4 108.3 94.9 80.7
British Columbia 264.7 253.0 248.0 258.2 221.7
Canada 1,040.8 1,079.9 1,100.8 1,120.0 1,072.6
Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0053)

4.3. Nursery operating expenses by category (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Gross yearly payroll[1] 241.3 227.7 227.2 225.0 202.4
Plant material purchases for growing on[2] 76.0 87.4 83.4 84.7 91.6
Plant material purchases for resale[2] 75.1 72.6 79.9 83.5 92.9
Electricity expenses[3] .. .. .. .. 5.5
Other crop expenses[3] .. .. .. .. 58.9
Other operating expenses 228.9 211.0 207.0 213.3 108.1
Total operating expenses 603.4 594.7 603.8 607.8 559.4

Notes:

  1. Includes seasonal and permanent labour.
  2. Includes value of trees, nursery stock, bedding plants, seedlings, cuttings or bulbs purchased before sales tax.
  3. Electricity and "other crop expenses" were not assessed by this survey before 2016.

.. : Data not available.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0061)

4.4. Nursery operating expenses by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.5 x
Prince Edward Island 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 x
Nova Scotia 9.9 9.2 10.1 11.1 10.2
New Brunswick 5.0 4.1 4.6 5.5 3.5
Quebec 83.2 90.9 84.4 89.7 71.0
Ontario 261.4 255.8 261.8 255.0 259.5
Manitoba 18.5 12.9 12.3 13.0 13.2
Saskatchewan 7.9 7.2 6.4 6.4 4.1
Alberta 41.1 35.7 44.1 47.9 37.7
British Columbia 174.7 177.7 178.8 178.1 158.4
Canada 603.4 594.7 603.8 607.8 559.4

Note:

x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0061)

4.5. Sod operating expenses by category (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Sod purchases for resale 3.7 3.0 2.6 1.8 1.5
Gross yearly payroll[1] 48.8 48.3 49.0 45.5 40.8
Other operating expenses 80.0 84.5 84.2 74.3 72.7
Total operating expenses[2] 132.5 135.7 135.8 121.6 115.0

Notes:

  1. Includes seasonal and permanent labour.
  2. Data may not add up as some data were suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0061)

4.6. Sod operating expenses by province (millions of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 2.5 1.9 2.1 2.4 1.9
Prince Edward Island 0.3 x x x x
Nova Scotia 5.4 4.9 4.8 x 3.8
New Brunswick 1.0 0.5 x 1.1 x
Quebec 30.2 31.1 27.4 26.9 24.5
Ontario 58.5 61.6 64.0 47.0 43.4
Manitoba 2.9 x 4.2 4.6 4.3
Saskatchewan 3.2 3.7 4.0 3.6 3.6
Alberta 20.1 19.8 19.5 21.6 22.0
British Columbia 8.3 8.9 8.4 9.8 9.9
Canada[1] 132.5 135.7 135.8 121.6 115.0

Note:
1. Data may not add up as some data was suppressed to meet confidentiality requirements.

x: Suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Table 001-0061)

5. Labour

5.1. Nursery, sod and greenhouse flowers total employees

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Nursery Seasonal employees[1] 11,015 10,115 9,773 9,487 7,993
Permanent employees[2] 4,455 4,107 3,841 3,666 3,670
Total employees 15,470 14,222 13,614 13,153 11,663
Sod Seasonal employees[1] 1,511 1,378 1,337 862 1,125
Permanent employees[2] 586 542 415 344 460
Total employees 2,097 1,920 1,565 1,206 1,585
Specialized greenhouse flowers and plants Seasonal employees[1] 13,495 12,572 12,115 12,067 10,845
Permanent employees[2] 7,250 6,851 6,596 6,727 6,312
Total employees 20,745 19,423 18,711 18,794 17,157

Notes:

  1. Seasonal employees who worked less than 8 months during the year.
  2. Permanent employees who worked more than 8 months during the year.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Tables 001-0054 & 001-0055)

5.2. Total employees by sector, 2012–2016

Description of this image follows.
Description of above image

Description of this image may be found in the preceding section 5.1.

Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Tables 001-0054 & 001-0055)

6. Trade

6.1. Canadian ornamental trade balance by category (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Bulbs, tubers, tuberous roots, etc. Exports 16,459 15,162 18,069 19,662 22,195
Imports 45,158 48,464 51,250 52,574 54,521
Trade balance −28,700 −33,302 −33,181 −32,912 −32,326
Other live plants, including their roots, cuttings and slips, etc. Exports 186,983 203,952 246,122 300,877 321,522
Imports 174,247 191,178 204,963 231,408 241,085
Trade balance 12,736 12,773 41,158 69,469 80,437
Cut flowers and flower buds for bouquets or ornamental purposes, etc. Exports 43,846 45,806 51,054 62,653 75,413
Imports 141,861 147,685 156,332 168,053 165,108
Trade balance −98,015 −101,879 −105,278 −105,400 −89,695
Foliage, branches and other parts of plants, etc.[1] Exports 46,140 46,858 51,179 54,954 57,921
Imports 28,341 30,990 33,339 36,901 37,801
Trade balance 17,799 15,868 17,840 18,052 20,121
Total Exports 293,427 311,778 366,424 438,145 477,052
Imports 389,607 418,317 445,884 488,936 498,515
Overall trade balance −96,180 −106,539 −79,460 −50,792 −21,463

Note:
1. Includes Christmas trees.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.2. Exports

6.2.1. Canadian floriculture and nursery exports[1] by province (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Prince Edward Island 2,351 2,402 2,564 3,222 3,667
Nova Scotia 13,883 14,217 16,007 20,472 18,387
New Brunswick 27,865 28,531 32,515 28,895 31,590
Quebec 27,249 29,190 28,405 37,627 39,640
Ontario 164,082 170,682 204,000 249,566 275,071
Manitoba 732 794 925 1,288 1,361
Saskatchewan 55 61 49 68 62
Alberta 372 410 189 279 328
British Columbia 56,803 65,489 81,770 96,724 106,946
Canada[2] 293,427 311,778 366,424 438,145 477,052

Notes:

  1. Includes Christmas trees.
  2. Canada total derived from the sum of available provincial data.

Newfoundland and Labrador exported no floriculture or nursery products during the five-year range presented in this table.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.2.2. Floriculture and nursery exports by province, 2012–2016

Description of this image follows.
Description of above image

Description of this image may be found in the preceding section 6.2.1.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.2.3. Floriculture and nursery exports by province – percent share, 2016

Description of this image follows.
Description of above image
Floriculture and nursery exports by province – percent share
Ontario 58%
British Columbia 22%
Quebec 8%
Nova Scotia 7%
New Brunswick 4%
Others 1%

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.2.4. Canada's top ten floriculture and nursery[1] export destinations (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
United States 288,008 307,149 361,859 431,542 472,938
Panama 1,103 1,345 1,417 3,343 1,738
Curaçao 0 0 301 241 416
Venezuela 561 208 285 474 278
Bermuda 195 231 257 219 265
Aruba 148 101 146 136 218
Japan 176 106 19 253 205
United Arab Emirates 55 56 23 52 148
Mexico 0 0 32 34 115
Barbados 57 84 84 100 99
Others 3,122 2,498 2,001 1,751 632
Total 293,427 311,778 366,424 438,145 477,052

Note:
1. Includes Christmas trees.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.2.5. Christmas tree exports by province[1] (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Prince Edward Island 25 14 15 18 0
Nova Scotia 4,890 5,206 8,522 7,903 7,894
New Brunswick 6,095 6,287 6,002 8,628 7,208
Quebec 14,765 15,308 17,751 24,373 27,426
Ontario 286 494 228 473 474
Manitoba 568 604 0 0 0
Saskatchewan 0 0 41 21 34
British Columbia 27 18 18 22 53
Canada 26,692 27,932 32,576 41,438 43,090

Note:
1. Newfoundland and Labrador and Alberta did not export Christmas trees during the five-year range presented in this table.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.2.6. Christmas tree exports by province[1] (number)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Prince Edward Island 1,771 605 550 590 0
Nova Scotia 438,104 403,323 375,160 365,095 353,586
New Brunswick 250,307 246,148 267,255 266,669 298,425
Quebec 822,783 819,382 865,279 1,061,691 1,265,217
Ontario 19,155 32,933 13,904 21,699 23,491
Manitoba 69,246 70,299 0 0 0
Saskatchewan 0 0 4,334 1,665 2,412
British Columbia 4,897 3,049 2,965 2,326 9,358
Canada 1,609,811 1,575,739 1,529,447 1,719,735 1,952,489

Note:
1. Newfoundland and Labrador and Alberta did not export Christmas trees during the five-year range presented in this table.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.2.7. Christmas tree exports by province, 2012–2016

Description of this image follows.
Description of above image

Description of this image may be found in the preceding section 6.2.6.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.2.8. Christmas tree exports by province – percentage share, 2016

Description of this image follows.
Description of above image
Christmas tree exports by province – percentage share
Quebec 64%
Nova Scotia 18%
New Brunswick 17%
Others 1%

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.2.9. Canada's top ten Christmas tree destinations (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
United States 24,211 25,533 29,822 36,666 39,662
Panama 1,103 1,345 1,417 3,343 1,738
Venezuela 497 208 285 474 278
Bermuda 195 230 257 219 264
Curaçao 0 0 301 241 416
Aruba 148 101 146 136 218
Netherlands Antilles 306 294 0 0 0
United Arab Emirates 55 56 23 52 148
Barbados 44 61 57 79 82
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) 0 0 73 60 82
Others 133 103 195 167 202
Total 26,692 27,932 32,576 41,438 43,090
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.2.10. Canada's top ten Christmas tree destinations (number)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
United States 1,469,809 1,535,836 1,477,761 1,634,249 1,866,218
Panama 88,738 21,314 22,971 53,283 51,133
Venezuela 18,190 3,173 7,616 13,483 6,206
Bermuda 3,810 4,316 5,375 4,921 5,466
Netherlands Antilles 13,383 5,900 0 0 0
Curaçao 0 0 6,838 4,407 7,680
Aruba 7,046 1,511 2,243 2,270 4,189
United Arab Emirates 1,625 738 360 1,364 3,921
Barbados 1,571 1,191 1,123 1,482 1,620
Bahamas 2,712 338 895 766 333
Others 2,927 1,422 4,265 3,510 5,723
Total 1,609,811 1,575,739 1,529,447 1,719,735 1,952,489
Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.2.11. Canada's floriculture and nursery[1] export destinations by U.S. state (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
New York 43,792 40,326 45,220 51,935 59,79
Washington State 25,554 26,447 28,619 33,702 40,406
Massachusetts 26,581 26,039 28,603 31,170 33,079
Florida 18,055 21,456 22,746 33,916 31,400
Michigan 15,614 17,452 19,819 28,058 28,805
Maine 18,038 18,187 20,154 23,486 24,252
Illinois 13,151 14,504 20,700 24,360 23,019
Pennsylvania 14,828 16,081 19,803 22,269 22,471
New Jersey 16,021 13,981 18,323 18,065 20,400
California 10,439 11,352 16,870 18,565 25,362
Other U.S. States 91,354 105,954 125,568 152,619 168,059
Total, United States 293,427 311,778 366,424 438,145 477,052

Note:
1. Includes Christmas trees.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.3. Imports

6.3.1. Floriculture and nursery[1] imports by province (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 152 187 137 117 101
Prince Edward Island 4 19 7 6 10
Nova Scotia 1,073 1,202 1,229 1,302 1,459
New Brunswick 5,386 5,513 6,123 6,280 6,215
Quebec 52,044 55,360 58,213 61,321 66,112
Ontario 199,691 216,755 231,555 254,550 262,988
Manitoba 31,427 32,932 35,596 33,809 32,159
Saskatchewan 1,913 1,465 2,540 5,764 5,877
Alberta 7,505 7,156 7,355 7,222 7,687
British Columbia 90,413 97,729 103,129 118,565 115,908
Canada 389,607 418,317 445,884 488,936 498,515

Note:
1. Includes Christmas trees.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

6.3.2. Top ten sources of Canada's floriculture and nursery[1] imports (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
United States 178,431 193,140 206,689 227,716 230,221
Colombia 78,723 82,791 91,996 98,089 103,612
Netherlands 46,187 48,552 52,201 53,640 55,923
Ecuador 36,589 41,378 41,942 45,502 39,015
Costa Rica 8,744 6,825 6,056 7,092 6,197
Mexico 4,785 5,521 6,082 7,391 8,494
Taiwan 3,987 4,493 4,510 6,606 6,780
Israel 3,817 3,719 4,878 4,896 4,580
Guatemala 3,790 4,018 3,568 4,119 5,726
China 2,583 2,832 3,058 3,920 3,927
Others 21,971 25,047 24,905 29,966 34,039
Total 389,607 418,317 445,884 488,936 498,515

Note:
1. Includes Christmas trees.

Source: Statistics Canada (CATSNet, July 2017)

7. World data

7.1. Top ten exporting countries for floriculture, nursery, and Christmas trees (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Netherlands 10,590,628 11,077,219 12,162,476 11,868,737 13,045,558
Colombia 1,279,536 1,383,639 1,527,707 1,665,208 1,758,789
Germany 986,760 1,140,835 1,235,920 1,195,246 1,349,431
Italy 893,618 912,731 988,773 973,549 1,108,378
Ecuador 739,775 865,038 885,859 1,048,778 1,071,972
Belgium 870,518 914,992 993,873 744,736 799,325
Kenya 515,047 562,559 697,890 684,999 750,210
Denmark 640,965 669,726 674,958 593,382 628,782
United States 399,851 429,532 466,089 523,056 566,192
Canada 295,691 314,636 368,757 442,212 485,181
Others 3,562,910 3,637,283 4,698,342 4,855,740 4,304,400
Total 20,775,300 21,908,192 24,700,645 24,595,644 25,868,218
Source: Global Trade Tracker (July 2017)

7.2. Top ten importing countries for floriculture, nursery, and Christmas trees (thousands of Canadian dollars)

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Germany 3,617,083 3,552,547 3,898,897 3,747,037 4,055,585
Netherlands 1,944,365 2,158,284 2,469,744 2,965,491 3,226,567
United States 1,860,642 1,965,669 2,176,195 2,559,786 2,875,443
United Kingdom 1,685,771 1,747,438 2,034,611 2,084,464 2,128,035
France 1,285,864 1,367,402 1,457,328 1,415,179 1,531,605
Japan 716,150 663,109 666,928 709,944 773,311
Italy 683,276 677,216 731,781 758,776 768,415
Russian Federation 981,840 988,365 938,647 917,108 765,527
Switzerland 629,787 658,893 704,681 692,001 733,054
Belgium 648,149 680,890 754,277 505,825 588,252
Others 4,752,291 5,375,248 5,872,464 6,154,251 6,691,743
Total 18,805,219 19,835,062 21,705,553 22,509,862 24,137,537
Source: Global Trade Tracker (July 2017)

8. Key resources

  • Global Trade Tracker
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 001-0047
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 001-0048
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 001-0049
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 001-0050
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 001-0051
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 001-0053
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 001-0054
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 001-0055
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 001-0058
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 001-0059
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 001-0060
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 001-0061
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 002-0001
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Tableau 004-0216
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Tableau 004-0217
  • Statistics Canada. CANSIM Tableau 004-0218
  • Statistics Canada. CATSNet
  • HS Codes: All import and export H.S. codes fall under Chapter 06 of the Custom Tariff.

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