Soil organic phosphorus transformations during 2000 years of paddy-rice and non-paddy management in the Yangtze River Delta, China

Jiang, X., W. Amelung, B.J. Cade-Menun, R. Bol, S. Willbold, Z. Cao and E. Klumpp. 2017. Soil organic phosphorus transformations during 2000 years of paddy-rice and non-paddy management in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Sci. Rep. 7:10878

Abstract

© 2017 The Author(s). The contents and properties of soil organic phosphorus (Po) largely drive ecosystem productivity with increasing development of natural soil. We hypothesized that soil Po would initially increase with paddy management and then would persist under steady-state conditions. We analyzed soils from a 2000-year chronosequence of a rice-wheat rotation and an adjacent non-paddy 700-year chronosequence in Bay of Hangzhou (China) for their Po composition using solution 31P-NMR after NaOH-EDTA extraction. Land reclamation promoted Po accumulation in both paddy and non-paddy topsoils (depths ≤ 18 cm) until steady-state equilibria were reached within 200 years of land use. Greater Po concentrations were found, however, in the non-paddy subsoils than in those under paddy management. Apparently, the formation of a dense paddy plough pan hindered long-term Po accumulation in the paddy subsoil. The surface soils showed higher proportions of orthophosphate diesters under paddy than under non-paddy management, likely reflecting suppressed decomposition of crop residues despite elevated microbial P compounds stocks under anaerobic paddy-rice management. Intriguingly, the composition of Po was remarkably stable after 194-years of paddy management and 144-years of non-paddy management, suggesting novel steady-state equilibria of P dynamics had been reached in these man-made ecosystems after less than two centuries.

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