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Long-term changes in grassland soil phosphorus with fertilizer application and withdrawal

Cade-Menun, B.J., Doody, D.G., Liu, C.W., Watson, C.J. (2017). Long-term changes in grassland soil phosphorus with fertilizer application and withdrawal, 46(3), 537-545. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2016.09.0373

Abstract

© American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA. All rights reserved. Long-term phosphorus (P) applications can increase soil P concentrations in excess of agronomic optima, posing a risk to water quality. Once fertilization stops, however, it may take time for soil P concentrations to decline. Whereas P fertilization adds orthophosphate, little is known about changes in other soil P forms during P buildup and drawdown. This study examined changes in P pools (total P, Olsen P, Mehlich P, and waterextractable P) and P forms determined by 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-NMR) in grazed grassland plots from Northern Ireland. Between 1994 and 1999, all plots received 8.3 kg P ha -1 yr -1 with variable rates of nitrogen (100-500 kg N ha -1 yr -1 ). From 2000 to 2005, plots received 0, 20, 40, or 80 kg P ha -1 yr -1 and 250 kg N ha -1 yr -1 ; from 2005 to 2010, no P fertilizer was applied to any plots. In 2005, soil P pool concentrations at the highest P fertilization rates were significantly elevated compared with those in 2000 but had decreased to 2000 concentrations by 2010. In soils receiving no P, soil P pool concentrations were significantly lower than those in 1994 only in 2010. There were few changes in P forms determined by P-NMR. Orthophosphate followed the same trend observed for the soil P pools; total organic P, total inositol phosphates, and total orthophosphate monoesters and diesters were highest in 2010 in the soil receiving no P fertilizer for 10 yr. For these soils, fertilizer application and cessation influenced inorganic P more than organic P.

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