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Thidiazuron in micropropagation of small fruits

Debnath, S.C. (2018). “Thidiazuron in micropropagation of small fruits.”, in Ahmad, N, and Faisal, M. (eds.) - Thidiazuron: From urea derivative to plant growth regulator, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd., Singapore, pp. 139-158 (


Strawberry, raspberry, grape, blueberry, and cranberry are major small fruit crops cultivated widely across the world. They are highly appreciated and have long been enjoyed enormous popularity among consumers. Their superior nutritive components play a significant dietary role in maintaining human health that has led to a dramatic increase of their global production. There has been an immense progress in small fruit micropropagation using semisolid gelled and liquid media containing different plant growth regulators (PGRs). Thidiazuron [1-phenyl-3- (1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea (TDZ)] is a PGR and with its cytokinin- and auxin-like effects, has significant role in in vitro propagation of small fruit crops. Bioreactor micropropagation containing liquid media with TDZ has resulted in significant progresses not only in reducing micropropagation cost but also in speeding up the process significantly for these crop species. However, the optimal plant production depends upon a number of factors including genotype, media types, types and concentration of PGR, and culture environment. The chapter deals with the progress in-depth of various aspects of small fruit micropropagation in semisolid and liquid media containing TDZ and use of TDZ in a bioreactor micropropagation for commercial production. Somaclonal variation can be a major concern in small fruit micropropagation using TDZ. Although strategies have been developed to reduce these variations, DNA-based molecular markers are promising tools to monitor clonal fidelity of TDZ-induced micropropagated small fruit plants. The chapter also describes the use of molecular markers for the assessment of genetic fidelity, stability, and true-to-typeness in small fruit tissue culture plants.

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