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History of the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg), in British Columbia, with notes on a recent range expansion.

Zilahi-Balogh, G. M. G., Humble, L. M., Foottit, R., Burleigh, J. and Stock, A. 2016. History of the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg), in British Columbia, with notes on a recent range expansion. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 113: 21-38.

Abstract

The balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), was introduced from Europe into eastern North America around 1900 and independently into western North America sometime before 1928. It was first detected causing damage in North Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1958. Since then, it has slowly spread to adjacent areas of southwestern B.C. Surveys from 2011 to 2013 confirmed the presence of A. piceae in the Cascades Forest District and in the town of Rossland, B.C., which are outside the pre-2014 quarantine area. Until these recent detections, provincial quarantine regulations have been the principle tool employed to prevent anthropogenic spread of the adelgid through the restriction of movement of potentially infested seedlings and nursery stock from infested coastal regions of British Columbia into the highly susceptible high-elevation Abies lasiocarpa stands in the Interior forests. We provide a historical overview of the quarantine regulations enacted since 1966, review the distribution of Adelges piceae since the first confirmed records of establishment as documented by historical survey records, and document the extent of recent survey efforts and new detections in interior subalpine fir forests.

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