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Identification of the Dominant Genotypes of Phytophthora infestans in Canada Using Real-Time PCR with ASO-PCR Assays

Marie-Claude Gagnon, Lawrence Kawchuk, D. Mathieu Tremblay, Odile Carisse, Giovanna Danies, William E. Fry, C. André Lévesque, and Guillaume J. Bilodeau. (2016). Identification of the Dominant Genotypes of Phytophthora infestans in Canada Using Real-Time PCR with ASO-PCR Assays. Plant Disease 100 (7): 1482-1491. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdf/10.1094/PDIS-07-15-0763-RE

Abstract

Phytophthora infestans, a pathogenic oomycete that is the causal agent of potato and tomato late blight, has devastating effects worldwide. The genetic composition of P. infestans populations in Canada has changed considerably over the last few years, with the appearance of several new genotypes showing different mating types and sensitivity to the fungicide metalaxyl. Genetic markers allowing for a rapid assessment of genotypes from small amounts of biological material would be beneficial for the early detection and control of this pathogen throughout Canada. Mining of the P. infestans genome revealed several regions containing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within both nuclear genes and flanking sequences of microsatellite loci. Allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR) assays were developed from 14 of the 50 SNP found by sequencing. Nine optimized ASO-PCR assays were validated using a blind test comprising P. infestans and other Phytophthora spp. The assays revealed diagnostic profiles unique to each of the five dominant genotypes present in Canada. The markers developed in this study can be used with environmental samples such as infected leaves, and will contribute to the genomic toolbox available to assess the genetic diversity of P. infestans at the intraspecific level. For late blight management, early warning about P. infestans genotypes present in potato and tomato fields will help growers select the most appropriate fungicides and application strategies.

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