The effect of dicyclohexylamine and fumagillin on Nosema ceranae-infected honey bees (Apis mellifera) mortality in cage trial assays.
van den Heever, J.P., Thompson, T.S., Otto, S.J.G., Curtis, J.M., Ibrahim, A.A., and Pernal, S.F. (2016). "The effect of dicyclohexylamine and fumagillin on Nosema ceranae-infected honey bees (Apis mellifera) mortality in cage trial assays.", Apidologie, 47(5), pp. 663-670. doi : 10.1007/s13592-015-0411-9 Access to full text
Both commercially available fumagillin-based treatments for honey bees (Apis mellifera), Fumagilin-B® as well as Fumidil-B®, contain the reportedly genotoxic and tumorigenic compound dicyclohexylamine (DCH) as the counter ion in the fumagillin-DCH salt. The effect of DCH, purified fumagillin (containing no DCH), and the commercial formulation Fumagilin-B® (containing both fumagillin as well as DCH) on the mortality of caged Nosema ceranae-infected honey bees was investigated. A statistically significant risk of bee mortality associated with oral exposure to DCH was observed. DCH is also known to be significantly more stable than fumagillin in honey under a variety of temperature conditions, both in the presence and absence of light. The presence of DCH in the hive is therefore a potential concern for bee health and also for food safety.
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