Characterization of phenolics, betacyanins and antioxidant activities of the seed, leaf, sprout, flower and stalk extracts of three Amaranthus species.

Li, H., Deng, Z.-Y., Liu, R., Zhu, H., Draves, J., Marcone, M.F., Sun, Y., and Tsao, R. (2015). "Characterization of phenolics, betacyanins and antioxidant activities of the seed, leaf, sprout, flower and stalk extracts of three Amaranthus species.", Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 37, pp. 75-81. doi : 10.1016/j.jfca.2014.09.003  Access to full text

Abstract

Hydrophilic extracts from different parts including leaves, stalks, seeds, flowers and sprouts of 3 Amaranthus species (Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus) were characterized for their phytochemical profiles including the phenolics and betacyanins by UHPLC and LC–ESI–MS, and their antioxidant activities by FRAP and ORAC assays. The main betacyanins in Amaranthus samples were identified to be amaranthine and isoamaranthine. Eleven phenolic compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, gentistic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, salicylic acid, rutin, ellagic acid, kaempferol-3-rutinoside and quercetin) were identified in the extracts of different parts of Amaranthus. The total phenolic content (TPC) ranged from 1.04 to 14.94 mg GAE/g DW; the total flavonoid content (TFC) ranged from 0.27 to 11.40 mg CAE/g DW; while the total betalain content (TBC) ranged from 0.07 to 20.93 mg/100 g DW. FRAP values ranged from 0.63 to 62.21 μmol AAE/g DW and ORAC ranged from 30.67 to 451.37 μmol TE/g DW. The leaves of Amaranthus showed the highest TPC, TFC, TBC, FRAP and ORAC values; while the seeds and stalks the lowest. There was a strong correlation between TPC, TBC, TFC and the antioxidant activity. The result suggests that all parts of the Amaranthus plant can be a good source of antioxidants.

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