Characterization of free, conjugated and bound phenolics and lipophilic antioxidants in regular- and non-darkening cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
Chen, P.X., Tang, Y., Marcone, M.F., Pauls, K.P., Zhang, B., Liu, R., and Tsao, R. (2015). "Characterization of free, conjugated and bound phenolics and lipophilic antioxidants in regular- and non-darkening cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).", Food Chemistry, 185, pp. 298-308. doi : 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.100 Access to full text
Cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from 7 different cultivars were characterized for phytochemicals and assessed for antioxidant activities. In vitro colorimetric methods were used to measure total phenolic (TPC) and total proanthocyanidin (PAC) contents. Free, conjugated and bound phenolic acids and flavonoids were also identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD/ESI–MSn. Regular-darkening (RD) seeds contained higher TPC, PAC and flavonoids which were absent in the non-darkening (ND) seeds. Bound and conjugated phenolics in RD and ND mainly included cinnamic and benzoic acids. DPPH, FRAP and ORAC showed strong positive correlation with TPC, PAC, and with specific phenolics such as free catechin and bound p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Lipophilic extracts were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (69.20–76.89%). Carotenoid and tocopherol were limited to γ-tocopherol and β-carotene. Results from this study can contribute to the development of cranberry bean cultivars with increased health benefits and addresses specific phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.
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