Einkorn: A functional wheat for developing high-lutein whole grain baked products.
Abdel-Aal, E-S.M. and Hucl, P.J. (2014). "Einkorn: A functional wheat for developing high-lutein whole grain baked products.", Cereal Foods World, 59(1), pp. 5-10. doi : 10.1094/CFW-59-1-0005 Access to full text
Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) is an ancient hulled wheat that has the simplest genetic makeup among domesticated wheat species. It has a soft endosperm with a high protein content and yellow pigments with unique nutritional profiles. Einkorn flour has a wide range of quality characteristics that are similar to durum and common wheat flours. In general, it has poor bread baking quality but does have cookie and muffin baking qualities that are comparable to modern soft and hard wheats. Einkorn contains the highest levels of lutein among wheat species, accounting for ≈77–83% of the total carotenoid content, followed by zeaxanthin at 9–13% of the total carotenoid content. Einkorn whole grain flour alone or blended with corn flour or a lutein supplement was processed into cookie, muffin, and yeast-free flatbread formulations. Studies of lutein stability showed a sharp decline in the three baked products. Despite significant lutein losses, the lutein-fortified whole grain baked products contained ≈1.1–1.3 mg/serving. The ex vivo bioavailability of lutein based on the fasted and fed digestion model showed that lutein in higher fat products (cookie and muffin) had higher overall bioavailability. Whole grain einkorn products are considered good sources of phenolic antioxidants and could boost the intake of lutein and whole grains.
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