Simulated genetically modified triticale: Adventitious presence from volunteers in four cropping systems.
Raatz, L.L., Yang, R.-C., Eudes, F., and Hall, L.M. (2014). "Simulated genetically modified triticale: Adventitious presence from volunteers in four cropping systems.", Crop Science, 54(3), pp. 1087-1096. doi : 10.2135/cropsci2013.08.0529 Access to full text
Harvesting volunteer genetically modified (GM) crops is a likely source of adventitious presence (AP) that could preclude coexistence with conventional crops. Spring triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus) is proposed as a biofuel and, with genetic modifications, as a platform crop for bioindustrial products. We investigated seed production of simulated volunteer triticale in four western Canadian cropping systems: glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola (Brassica napus L.); glufosinate-resistant (GLUR) canola; field pea (Pisum sativum L.); and imidazolinone-resistant (IR) wheat, in 2006 and 2007 at two locations, and quantified crop yield losses, triticale seed viability, and AP of triticale in harvested crops. Fecundity of volunteers in the absence of herbicides varied between locations, from 3506 to 9280 seeds m-2, and with crop: GLUR canola = GR canola < IR spring wheat < field pea. Herbicides applied preseeding (PRE) reduced triticale densities between 30 and 80%, and survivors produced between 178 and 2052 seeds m-2. Herbicides applied in-crop (POST) were more effective and reduced triticale densities between 8 and > 99% and fecundity between <1 and 1231 seeds m-2. The combination of PRE and POST applications reduced fecundity below that of PRE or POST alone in 3 of 16 crop years. The AP was >1% of the crop (weight/weight) in 3 of 13 crop years when both PRE and POST herbicides were applied. Volunteer triticale is a probable source of AP in subsequent crops that may reduce acceptability in some GM sensitive markets.
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