Chemical characterization of milk after treatment with thermal (HTST and UHT) and nonthermal (turbulent flow ultraviolet) processing technologies.
Cappozzo, J.C., Koutchma, T., and Barnes, G. (2015). "Chemical characterization of milk after treatment with thermal (HTST and UHT) and nonthermal (turbulent flow ultraviolet) processing technologies.", Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), 98(8), pp. 5068-5079. doi : 10.3168/jds.2014-9190 Access to full text
As a result of growing interest to nonthermal processing of milk, the purpose of this study was to characterize the chemical changes in raw milk composition after exposure to a new nonthermal turbulent flow UV process, conventional thermal pasteurization process (high-temperature, short-time; HTST), and their combinations, and compare those changes with commercially UHT-treated milk. Raw milk was exposed to UV light in turbulent flow at a flow rate of 4,000 L/h and applied doses of 1,045 and 2,090 J/L, HTST pasteurization, and HTST in combination with UV (before or after the UV). Unprocessed raw milk, HTST-treated milk, and UHT-treated milk were the control to the milk processed with the continuous turbulent flow UV treatment. The chemical characterization included component analysis and fatty acid composition (with emphasis on conjugated linoleic acid) and analysis for vitamin D and A and volatile components. Lipid oxidation, which is an indicator to oxidative rancidity, was evaluated by free fatty acid analysis, and the volatile components (extracted organic fraction) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to obtain mass spectral profile. These analyses were done over a 14-d period (initially after treatment and at 7 and 14 d) because of the extended shelf-life requirement for milk. The effect of UV light on proteins (i.e., casein or lactalbumin) was evaluated qualitatively by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The milk or liquid soluble fraction was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE for changes in the protein profile. From this study, it appears that continuous turbulent flow UV processing, whether used as a single process or in combination with HTST did not cause any statistically significant chemical changes when compared with raw milk with regard to the proximate analysis (total fat, protein, moisture, or ash), the fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation with respect to volatile analysis, or protein profile. A 56% loss of vitamin D and a 95% loss of vitamin A content was noted after 7 d from the continuous turbulent flow UV processing, but this loss was equally comparable to that found with traditional thermal processing, such as HTST and UHT. Chemical characterization of milk showed that turbulent flow UV light technology can be considered as alternative nonthermal treatment of pasteurized milk and raw milk to extend shelf life.
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