Feeding increasing levels of corn gluten meal induces suboptimal muscle pigmentation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Saez, P.J., Abdel-Aal, E-S.M., and Bureau, D. (2014). "Feeding increasing levels of corn gluten meal induces suboptimal muscle pigmentation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).", Aquaculture Research, pp. 1-14. doi : 10.1111/are.12653 Access to full text
A 24-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding levels of corn gluten meal (CGM) on growth performance and pigment deposition in the muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic (digestible energy basis) experimental diets were formulated to contain increasing levels of CGM (0%, 9% and 18%) and 50 mg kg-1 of astaxanthin. Each diet was fed in triplicate to groups of 75 fish (initial average body weight = 549 g fish-1) reared at 8.5°C. The inclusion of CGM did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect final body weight, thermal growth efficiency (TGC) or feed efficiency. Carotenoid concentration determined by liquid chromatography showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear reduction in the concentration of one astaxanthin isomer, all-trans astaxanthin and all-trans lutein in the muscle of fish in response to increasing levels of CGM. Tristimulus colour analysis of the muscle showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear reduction in a* (redness) and C*ab (chroma). Salmofan™ score showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear and quadratic reduction in response to increasing levels of CGM. In conclusion, the inclusion of CGM up to 18% does not significantly impact growth performance of rainbow trout. However, the concentration of all-trans astaxanthin as well as the expression of important colour attributes of the muscle can be negatively affected at levels exceeding 9% of CGM in the diet. More research on this topic is needed to discern the mechanism(s) behind the negative effects of dietary CGM and/or its intrinsic yellow pigments on muscle pigmentation of rainbow trout.
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