Detection and characterization of broad-spectrum anti-pathogen activity of novel rhizobacterial isolates and suppression of Fusarium crown and root rot disease of tomato.

Zhang, L., Khabbaz, S.E., Wang, A.M., Li, H., and Abbasi, P.A. (2015). "Detection and characterization of broad-spectrum anti-pathogen activity of novel rhizobacterial isolates and suppression of Fusarium crown and root rot disease of tomato.", Journal of Applied Microbiology, 118(3), pp. 685-703. doi : 10.1111/jam.12728  Access to full text

Abstract

Aims: To detect and characterize broad-spectrum antipathogen activity of indigenous bacterial isolates obtained from potato soil and soya bean leaves for their potential to be developed as biofungicides to control soilborne diseases such as Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato (FCRR) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (Forl). Methods and Results: Thirteen bacterial isolates (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (four isolates), Paenibacillus polymyxa (three isolates), Pseudomonas chlororaphis (two isolates), Pseudomonas fluorescens (two isolates), Bacillus subtilis (one isolate) and Pseudomonas sp. (one isolate)) or their volatiles showed antagonistic activity against most of the 10 plant pathogens in plate assays. Cell-free culture filtrates (CF) of five isolates or 1-butanol extracts of CFs also inhibited the growth of most pathogen mycelia in plate assays. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of most antibiotic biosynthetic genes such as phlD, phzFA, prnD and pltC in most Pseudomonas isolates and bmyB, bacA, ituD, srfAA and fenD in most Bacillus isolates. These bacterial isolates varied in the production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), siderophores, β-1,3-glucanases, chitinases, proteases, indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis identified 10 volatile compounds from 10 isolates and 18 compounds from 1-butanol extracts of CFs of five isolates. Application of irradiated peat formulation of six isolates to tomato roots prior to transplanting in a Forl-infested potting mix and field soil provided protection of tomato plants from FCRR disease and enhanced plant growth under greenhouse conditions. Conclusions: Five of the 13 indigenous bacterial isolates were antagonistic to eight plant pathogens, both in vitro and in vivo. Antagonistic and plant-growth promotion activities of these isolates might be related to the production of several types of antibiotics, lytic enzymes, phytohormones, secondary metabolites, siderophores and volatile compounds; however, any specific role of each needs to be determined. Significance and Impact of the Study: Indigenous antagonistic bacterial isolates have the potential to be developed as biofungicides for minimizing early crop losses due to soilborne diseases caused by Fusarium and other soilborne pathogens.

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