Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Genotypes.

Tang, Y., Li, X.H., Chen, P.X., Zhang, B., Hernandez, M., Zhang, H., Marcone, M.F., Liu, R., and Tsao, R. (2015). "Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Genotypes.", Food Chemistry, 174, pp. 502-508. doi : 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.040  Access to full text

Abstract

Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p < 0.05). The oil yield was 6.58–7.17% which contained predominantly unsaturated fatty acids (89.42%). The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid was ca. 6/1. The total tocopherol content ranged from 37.49 to 59.82 μg/g and mainly consisted of γ-tocopherol. Trace amount of α- and β-tocotrienols was also found. Black quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7–85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols.

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