Feasibility of the application of electronic nose technology to detect insect infestation in wheat.

Wu, J., Jayas, D.S., Zhang, Q., White, N.D.G., and York, R.K. (2013). "Feasibility of the application of electronic nose technology to detect insect infestation in wheat.", Canadian Biosystems Engineering, 55, pp. 3.1-3.9. doi : 10.7451/CBE.2013.55.3.1  Access to full text

Abstract

An Alpha MOS FOX-3000 electronic nose (e-nose) equipped with 12 metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors was used to evaluate the presence of insects in wheat. Samples of Canada western red spring (CWRS) wheat (cv. AC Barrie) infested with rusty grain beetle (RGB), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), and red flour beetle (RFB), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were placed in glass jars fitted for the collection of headspace volatiles. Different insect densities (0, 1, 2, 10 and 20 insects/kg) were tested for each insect species in combination with three moisture content levels for wheat (14%, 16%, and 18% wet mass basis). The headspace volatiles from insect-infested or non-infested wheat were sampled and injected into the e-nose. The response of e-nose sensors, in the form of a multi-dimensional matrix, was extracted and interpreted using AlphaSoft V8.0 software. The automated pattern recognition algorithms in the software (Principal Component Analysis, Discriminant Factorial Analysis, and Partial Least Square) were used to evaluate the samples. The e-nose could only detect the presence of RFB in wheat with the high infestation level (20 insects/kg) at 14% and 16% moisture content. However, the e-nose did not detect the presence of RFB in wheat at 18% moisture content. The e-nose also failed to detect the presence of RGB in wheat.

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