Nucleases for genome editing in crops.
Site-specific nucleases create DNA double stranded breaks which, during repair, can be used to introduce site-specific point mutations, insertions and deletions into the plant genome. Identification of novel nucleases and further characterization of known nucleases, including Zinc finger nucleases, TAL effector-like endonucleases, Meganucleases and CRISPR–Cas, have increased the range and level of precision of methods available for modifying plant genomes. Precision, site-specific modification of plant genomes, known as genome editing, is emerging as a powerful tool for the improvement of crop species. This review discusses the functional and structural details of these nucleases and their potential applications for the genetic modification of plants.
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