A method to detection of diphenylamine contamination of stored apple fruit and storages using headspace solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy.
Song, J., Forney, C.F., and Jordan, M.A. (2014). "A method to detection of diphenylamine contamination of stored apple fruit and storages using headspace solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy.", Food Chemistry, 160, pp. 255-259. doi : 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.03.099 Access to full text
Analysis of headspace concentrations of diphenylamine using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) was examined for its suitability to detect DPA contamination and off-gassing in apple (Malus domestica) fruit, storage rooms and storage materials. Four SPME fibre coatings including polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 100 μm), PDMS/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), Polyacrylate (PA) and PDMS 7 μm were evaluated. The average limits of detection and of quantification for head space DPA ranged from 0.13 to 0.72 μg L−1 and 0.42 to 2.35 μg L−1, respectively. Polyacrylate was identified to be the most suitable and compatible fibre for DPA analysis in apple samples, because of its high sensitivity to DPA and low fruit volatile interferences. SPME techniques were further applied to study contamination of DPA in apples, storage rooms and packaging materials. DPA was found in the air of storage rooms containing apples that were not treated with DPA. Wood and plastic bin material, bin liners, and foam insulation all adsorbed and off-gassed DPA and could be potential sources of contamination of untreated apples.
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