Effect of age on bovine subcutaneous fat proteome: Molecular mechanisms of physiological variations during beef cattle growth.

Romao, J.M., He, M.L., McAllister, T.A., and Guan, L.L. (2014). "Effect of age on bovine subcutaneous fat proteome: Molecular mechanisms of physiological variations during beef cattle growth.", Journal of Animal Science, 92(8), pp. 3316-3327. doi : 10.2527/jas.2013-7423  Access to full text

Abstract

Fat deposition influences both meat quality and animal productivity. However, it is not clear how fat development is regulated in growing and fattening beef cattle. This study characterized proteomic changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue from steers fed a high-grain diet in an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms of fat development during feedlot production. Eight British-Continental crossbred steers had two subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies at 12 and 15 mo of age. Protein expression in fat samples was profiled using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). During the finishing period, steers increased subcutaneous adipose tissue mass with concomitant changes in the proteome profile, but the nature of these changes varied among steers. The expression of 123 out of 627 identified proteins differed (P < 0.05) between 2 ages. Functional analyses on differentially expressed proteins revealed that 20.2% of them were associated with cellular growth and proliferation of adipose tissue. There were 17 out of 108 differentially expressed proteins associated with lipid metabolism, which were acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1), annexin A1 (ANXA1), apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3), apolipoprotein H (beta-2-glycoprotein I; APOH), EH-domain containing 1 (EHD1), coagulation factor II (thrombin; F2), gelsolin (GSN), lamin A/C (LMNA), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1), myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle (MYH9), orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3), retinol binding protein 4, plasma (RBP4), renin binding protein (RENBP), succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp; SDHA), serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade C (antithrombin), member 1 (SERPINC1), and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G (C1 inhibitor), member 1 (SERPING1). Further analysis of the expression levels of proteins associated with lipid metabolism indicated a downregulation in the synthesis of fatty acids at the cellular level at 15 compared to 12 mo of age. These results suggest that even though adipose tissue expanded, fat anabolism was reduced in adipocytes during growth, revealing a coordinated balance between subcutaneous fat mass and the cellular abundance of lipogenic proteins to control the rate of fat deposition in growing beef cattle. The findings observed in this study expand our understanding on how proteome of bovine adipose tissue is regulated during growth, which might help the development in the future of new strategies to manipulate adiposity in beef cattle in a manner that improves meat quality and animal productivity.

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