The parasitic and lethal effects of Trichoderma longibrachiatum against Heterodera avenae.
Zhang, S., Gan, Y.T., Xu, B., and Xue, Y. (2014). "The parasitic and lethal effects of Trichoderma longibrachiatum against Heterodera avenae.", Biological Control, 72, pp. 1-8. doi : 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2014.01.009 Access to full text
Heterodera avenae is a devastating plant pathogen that causes significant yield losses in many crops, but there is a lack of scientific information whether this pathogen can be controlled effectively using biocontrol agents. Here we determined the parasitic and lethal effects of Trichoderma longibrachiatum against H. avenae and the possible mechanism involved in this action. Both in vitro and greenhouse experiments were conducted. In vitro, T. longibrachiatum at the concentrations of 1.5 × 104 to 1.5 × 108 spores per ml had a strong parasitic and lethal effect on the cysts of H. avenae, with the concentration of 1.5 × 108 spores per ml having >90% parasitism 18 days after treatments. In greenhouse, T. longibrachiatum inoculation decreased H. avenae infection in wheat (Triticum aestivum) significantly. Observations with microscopes revealed that after mutual recognition with cysts, the spore of T. longibrachiatum germinated with a large number of hyphae, and reproduced rapidly on the surface of cysts. Meanwhile, the cysts surface became uneven, with some cysts producing vacuoles, and the others splitting. Finally the cysts were dissolved by the metabolite of T. longibrachiatum. Chitinase activity increased in the culture filtrates of T. longibrachiatum and reached the maximum 4 days after inoculation in the medium supplemented with colloidal chitin (1.02 U/min per ml) and nematode cysts (0.78 U/min per ml). The parasitism and inhibition of cysts through the increased extracellular chitinase activity serves as the main mechanism with which T. longibrachiatum against H. avenae. In conclusion, T. longibrachiatum has a great potential to be used as a biocontrol agent against H. avenae.
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