Extreme cold temperature to kill blueberry maggot in reusable containers.
Vincent, C., Lemoyne, P., Gaul, S.O., and MacKenzie, K.C. (2014). "Extreme cold temperature to kill blueberry maggot in reusable containers.", Journal of Economic Entomology, 107(3), pp. 906-909. doi : 10.1603/EC13524 Access to full text
Pupae of the blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), were subjected to −20°C for 2, 4, 7, 10, and 15 d (control = 0 d at 4°C) in fall 2011 and 2012 and were allowed to overwinter for at least 181 d at 4°C. Mean adult emergence in the control was 64% in 2012 and 39% in 2013. No adults emerged in May 2012 from 500 pupae treated for >2 d at −20°C in fall 2011. Two adults emerged in May 2013 from 100 pupae treated for 2 d at −20°C in fall 2012. No adults emerged in May 2013 from 400 pupae subjected to −20°C for durations of 4, 7, 10, and 15 d. No adults emerged from larvae concealed in berries subjected to −20°C for >2 d. Exposure of larvae and pupae to cold temperatures (i.e., −20°C) for >2 d can be a valuable nonpesticidal method for killing R. mendax larvae and pupae associated with reusable containers.
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