Anthocyanin metabolites are abundant and persistent in human urine.

Kalt, W., Liu, Y., McDonald, J.E., Vinqvist-Tymchuk, M.R., and Fillmore, S.A.E. (2014). "Anthocyanin metabolites are abundant and persistent in human urine.", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(18), pp. 3926-3934. doi : 10.1021/jf500107j  Access to full text


LC-MS/MS revealed that metabolites of anthocyanins (Acn) were abundant in human urine (n = 17) even after 5 days with no dietary Acn. After intake of 250 mL of blueberry juice, parent Acn were 4% and Acn metabolites were 96% of the total urinary Acn for the following 24 h. Multiple reaction monitoring revealed 226 combinations of mass transition × retention times for known Acn and predicted Acn metabolites. These were dominated by aglycones, especially aglycone glucuronides. The diversity of Acn metabolites could include positional isomers of Acn conjugates and chalcones. The persistence of Acn metabolites suggested enterohepatic recycling leading to prolonged residence time. The prevalence of Acn metabolites based on pelargonidin, which is not present in blueberry juice, may reflect ongoing dehydroxylation and demethylation of other Acn via xenobiotic and colonic bacterial action. The results suggest that exposure to Acn-based flavonoid moieties is substantially greater than suggested by earlier research.

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